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Sitzungsberichte der preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften - Physikalisch-mathematische Klasse for the years 1922 – 1938
(Proceedings of the Prussian Academy of sciences – physics and mathematics section )
We have so far listed the contributions for the years 1922 to 1931
All contributions are first editions, first impressions.
16 clothbound annual volumes,
(incl. one double volume )
all green wrappers bound in, £4,500
Many of the individual articles also appeared as offprints. The offprints and the contributions in the proceedings were both first printings printed on the same paper and issued at the same time. The only difference was that the offprints sometimes had their own paginations and were 2nd impressions. "The early Offprints from "Sitzungsberichten." are called "Sonderabdruck" up to Weil No.165 . From Weil 166 they are called "Sonderausgabe.". - Before 161 (up to 160) the Offprints do not have a separate title and pagination (the pagination follows the numbering in the periodical). From 166 the Offprints have both separate printed titles and pagination. -
The set contains 26 Einstein first editions alone
ex-Bodleian Library Oxford with small library stamps on the green wrappers.
It is at the same time a fascinating history of the early nazi period recording treatment and betrayal of Jewish scientists on the one hand and tells about colleagues, who sacrificed their positions when asked to dismiss Jewish colleagues on the other. Cataloguing is ongoing and this entry will be updated regularly.
As per Wikipedia : Under Nazi rule (1933–1945), the academy was subject to the Gleichschaltung. However, compared with other institutions like the universities, Jewish employees and members were expelled not beginning with 1933 but only after 1938, following a direct request by the Ministry of Education. The new academy statute went in effect on 8 June 1939, reorganizing the academy according to the Nazi leader principle. This is not correct, see for example Emmy Noether, she was dismissed in 1933.
The set in Princeton University Library:
Abhandlungen der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften (Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin. Physikalisch-Mathematische Klasse).
Berlin : Verlag der Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1918-39.
Description of the set located at Lewis Library Serials (shelved by serial title) (SCISS) 0912.170.31
• Title: Abhandlungen der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften (Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin. Physikalisch-Mathematische Klasse).
Abhandlungen der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften / Physikalisch-Mathematische Klasse.
• Uniform Title: Abhandlungen der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften (Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin. Physikalisch-Mathematische Klasse)
• Published/Created: Berlin : Verlag der Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1918-39.
• General: 22 v. ; 30 cm.
Jahrg. 19 -39 also called: Nr. -9.
Jahrg. 1918-Jahrg. 1939.
• Related Titles: Continues:Abhandlungen der Ko?niglich Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften (Ko?niglich Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin. Physikalisch-Mathematische Klasse)
Continued By: Abhandlungen der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften (Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse)
• Notes: Jahrg. 19 -39 also called: Nr. -9.
• Subject(s): Science -- Periodicals
• Related name(s): Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften. Physikalisch-Mathematische Klasse
• ISBN/ISSN: 0365-5792
• The Royal Prussian Academy of Sciences (German: Königlich-Preußische Akademie der Wissenschaften) was an academic academy established in Berlin on 11 July 1700, four years after the Akademie der Künste or "Arts Academy", to which "Berlin Academy" may also refer. In the 18th century it was a French-language institution, and its most active members were Huguenots who had fled religious persecution in France.
Certainly the most valuable part are Albert Einstein’s lectures which we list here initially separately and later again within the contents of the volumes:
ALBERT EINSTEIN 27 first editions of his lectures held at the Prussian Academy 1922 – 1933.
1. ALBERT EINSTEIN: Zur Theorie der Lichtfortpflanzung in dispergierenden Medien. Pp. 18 – 22, 1922;
2. Bemerkung zu der Abhandlung von E. Trefftz: Das statische Gravitationsfeld zweier Massenpunkte in der
Einsteinschen Theorie. Pp. 448 – 449, 1922;
3. Zur allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie. Pp. 32 – 38, 1923;
4. Bemerkung zu meiner Arbeit “Zur allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie” pp 76- 77, 1923;
5. Zur affinen Feldtheorie. Pp. 137-140, 1923;
6. Bietet die Feldtheorie Moeglichkeiten fuer die Loesung des Quantenproblems. Pp. 359 – 364, 1923;
7. Quantentheorie des einatomigen idealen Gases. Pp 261 - 267, 1924; :
8. Quantentheorie des einatomigen idealen Gases. Zweite Abhandlung. pp. 3-25 , 1925;
9. Einheitliche Feldtheorie von Gravitation und Elektrizität. pp. 414 - 419, 1925;
10. Über die Interferenzeigenschaften des durch Kanalstrahlen emittierten Lichtes. Pp 334 – 340, 1926;
11. With J. Grommer: Allgemeine Relativitätstheorie und Bewegungsgesetz. Pp. 2 – 13, 1927;
12. Zu Kaluzas Theorie des Zusammenhanges von Gravitation und Elektrizität. Erste Mitteilungpp. 23 – 25,
13. Zu Kaluzas Theorie des Zusammenhanges von Gravitation und Elektrizität. Zweite Mitteilung. Pp. 26 – 30
14. Allgemeine Relativita?tstheorie und Bewegungsgesetz. Pp . 235 -245, 1927;
15. Riemann-Geometrie mit Aufrechterhaltung des Begriffes des Fernparallelis-mus. Pp. 217 – 221, 1928; :
16. Neue Möglichkeit für Eine Einheitliche Feldtheorie von Gravitation und Elektrizität. Pp 224 – 227, 1928;
17. Zur einheitlichen Feldtheorie. Pp. 2 -7, 1929;
18. Einheitliche Feldtheorie und HAMILTONsches Prinzip. Pp. 156 – 159, 1929;
19. Die Kompatabilität der Feldgleichungen in der einheitlichen Feldtheorie. Pp 18 -23, 1930;
20. With W[alter]. Mayer: Zwei Strenge Statische Losungen der Feldgleichungen der Einheitlichen Feldtheorie.
Pp. 110 – 120, 1930
21. Zur Theorie der Raeume mit Riemann-Metrik und Fernparallelismus, 1930 pp. 401 -402
22. Die Kompatibilitaet der Feldgleichungen in der einheitlichen Feldtheorie, 1930 pp. 18 -23
23. Zum Kosmologischen Problem der allgemeinen Relativitaetstheorie, 1931 pp. 235 – 237.
24. Systematische Untersuchung über kompatible Feldgleichungen welche in einem Riemannschen Raume mit
Fern-Parallelismus gesetzt werden können pp. 257 – 265 ,1931
25. with W. Mayer: Einheitliche Theorie von Gravitation und Elektrizität. 1931 pp. 541 - 557
26. Einheitliche Theorie von Gravitation und Elektrizitaet, 2. Abhandlung .1932 pp. 130 – 137.
27. Semi-Vektoren und Spinoren, 1932 pp 522 - 550
Einstein went for a visit to the USA in 1933 and never returned.
A few are missing on the Einstein Annales site which feature in our collection however
the full listing:
presided over in part by Max Planck.
19. Januar: G.Haberlandt: Die Entwicklungserregung der parthenogenetischen Eizellen von Marsilia Drummondii A. Br. Nach Präparaten Eduard Strassburgers. pp. 4-16, illustrated,
GOTTLIEB HABERLANDT ( 1854 -1945 ), Austrian botanist. He first pointed out the possibilities of the culture of isolated tissues (Bonner, 1936). He suggested that the potentialities of individual cells via tissue culture and also suggested that the reciprocal influences of tissues on one another could be determined by this method. Since Haberlandt's original assertions methods for tissue and cell culture have been realized, leading to significant discoveries in Biology and Medicine. His original idea presented in 1902 was called totipotentiality: “Theoretically all plant cells are able to give rise to a complete plant.”
2. Februar: A. Einstein: Zur Theorie der Lichtfortpflanzung in dispergierenden Medien. pp. 18- 22
This paper gives evidence that Einstein’s ideas on the photon were not able to contradict classical theory. "Since, after 1917, Einstein firmly believed that light-quanta were here to stay, it is not surprising that he would look for new ways in which the existence of photons might lead to observable deviation from the classical picture. In this he did not succeed. At one point, in 1921, he thought he had found a new quantum criterion, but it soon turned out to be a false lead [as demonstrated in this paper]".
Albert Einstein (1879 –1955) , German-born theoretical physicist. He developed the general theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics) While best known for his mass–energy equivalence formula E = mc2 (which has been dubbed "the world's most famous equation"),[ he received the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics "for his services to theoretical physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect". The latter was pivotal in establishing quantum theory. Near the beginning of his career, Einstein thought that Newtonian mechanics was no longer enough to reconcile the laws of classical mechanics with the laws of the electromagnetic field. This led to the development of his special theory of relativity. He realized, however, that the principle of relativity could also be extended to gravitational fields, and with his subsequent theory of gravitation in 1916, he published a paper on the general theory of relativity. He continued to deal with problems of statistical mechanics and quantum theory, which led to his explanations of particle theory and the motion of molecules. He also investigated the thermal properties of light which laid the foundation of the photon theory of light. In 1917, Einstein applied the general theory of relativity to model the large-scale structure of the universe. He was visiting the United States when Adolf Hitler came to power in 1933 and did not go back to Germany, where he had been a professor at the Berlin Academy of Sciences. He settled in the U.S., becoming an American citizen in 1940. On the eve of World War II, he endorsed a letter to President Franklin D. Roosevelt alerting him to the potential development of "extremely powerful bombs of a new type" and recommending that the U.S. begin similar research. This eventually led to what would become the Manhattan Project. Einstein supported defending the Allied forces, but largely denounced using the new discovery of nuclear fission as a weapon. Later, with the British philosopher Bertrand Russell, Einstein signed the Russell–Einstein Manifesto, which highlighted the danger of nuclear weapons. Einstein was affiliated with the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey, until his death in 1955. Einstein published more than 300 scientific papers along with over 150 non-scientific works His great intellectual achievements and originality have made the word "Einstein" synonymous with genius.
12. Januar: F. Bernstein & P. Schläper: Ueber die Tonlage der menschlichen Singstimme. Ein Beitrag zur Statistik der Sekundären Geschlechtsmerkmale beim Menschen. pp 30- 37
23. Februar: Karl Heider: Ueber Archianneliden. pp. 39- 44
Karl Heider (, Vienna – 1935 ) , Austrian zoologist and embryologist known for his research involving the developmental history of invertebrates. He was the son of Moriz Heider, a pioneer of scientific dentistry in Austria. He studied medicine and zoology in Graz and Vienna, obtaining his PhD in 1879 and his doctorate of medicine in 1883. In Vienna he was a student of zoologist Carl Claus and a colleague to Karl Grobben, with whom he formed a lifelong friendship. After receiving his habilitation, he became a professor at the University of Innsbruck (1894). In 1917 he was appointed to the chair of zoology at Friedrich Wilhelm University in Berlin. His name is associated with several marine invertebrates with the specific epithet of heideri, an example being Thaumastoderma heideri.
2 . März: G. Hellmann: Neue Untersuchungen ueber die Regenverhältnisse von Deutschland. Dritte Mitteilung: Der Jahresverlauf. pp. 46- 61
Gustav Johann Georg Hellmann or Georg Gustav Hellmann ( 1854 –1939) German meteorologist born in Löwen (Lewin Brzeski), Prussian Silesia. From 1907 to 1922, he was the principal of the Preußischen Meteorologischen Institut (Prussian Meteorological Institute) in Berlin.
9. März: Max Planck: Ueber die freie Energie von Gasmolekuelen mit beliebiger Geschwindigkeits-verteilung. pp. 63- 70
Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck, FRS (1858 –1947) , German theoretical physicist who originated quantum theory, which won him the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1918. Planck made many contributions to theoretical physics, but his fame rests primarily on his role as originator of the quantum theory. This theory revolutionized human understanding of atomic and subatomic processes, just as Albert Einstein’s theory of relativity revolutionized the understanding of space and time. Together they constitute the fundamental theories of 20th-century physics.
16. März: W. Kuekenthal: Zur Stammesgeschichte der Wale. pp. 72- 87.
Willy Georg Kükenthal (1861 – 1922) , German zoologist who was a native of Weißenfels. He was the older brother of botanist Georg Kükenthal (1864-1955). He was a student at the Universities of Munich and Jena, earning his doctorate at the latter institution in 1884. In 1887 he obtained his habilitation, becoming a professor of phylogeny at Jena two years later. From 1898 he served as professor of comparative anatomy and zoology at the University of Breslau and director of the zoological museum. In 1918 he was appointed professor of zoology at the University of Berlin as well as director of the zoological museum. In 1918-19 he was president of the German Zoological Society. In 1886 and 1889 Kükenthal travelled to regions in the Arctic, and in 1893-94, with support from the Senckenberg Natural History Society, participated in an expedition to Borneo and the Moluccas. He specialized in the study of Octocorallia, a taxonomic subclass that includes sea pens, sea fans and soft corals. He also conducted embryological and comparative anatomical investigations of whales and other marine mammals. His large collection of zoological specimens is now housed at the Senckenberg Museum in Frankfurt. He had over twenty zoological species named after him, including Hemirhamphodon kuekenthali (Kuekenthal's halfbeak), Parantica kuekenthali (Kuekenthal's yellow tiger) and Lysmata kuekenthali (Kuekenthal's cleaner shrimp). Kükenthaløya, a small island located between Spitsbergen and Barentsøya is named in his honour.
Kuekenthal's yellow tiger (Parantica kuekenthali)
2. Februar: G. Szegoe:Ueber Potenzreihen mit endlich vielen verschiedenen Koeffizienten. pp. 88- 91.
Gábor Szeg? (1895 – 1985) , Hungarian mathematician. He was one of the foremost analysts of his generation and made fundamental contributions to the theory of Toeplitz matrices and orthogonal polynomials. He was born in Kunhegyes, Austria-Hungary (today Hungary), into a Jewish family as the son of Adolf Szeg? and Hermina Neuman.[ He married the chemist Anna Elisabeth Neményi in 1919, with whom he had two children. In 1912 he started studies in mathematical physics at the University of Budapest, with summer visits to the University of Berlin and the University of Göttingen, where he attended lectures by Frobenius and Hilbert, amongst others. In Budapest he was taught mainly by Fejér, Beke, Kürschák and Bauer and made the acquaintance of his future collaborators George Pólya and Michael Fekete. His studies were interrupted in 1915 by World War I, in which he served in the infantry, artillery and air corps. In 1918 while stationed in Vienna, he was awarded a doctorate by the University of Vienna for his work on Toeplitz determinants. He received his Privat-Dozent from the University of Berlin in 1921, where he stayed until being appointed as successor to Knopp at the University of Königsberg in 1926. Intolerable working conditions during the Nazi regime resulted in a temporary position at the Washington University in Saint Louis, Missouri in 1936, before his appointment as chairman of the mathematics department at Stanford University in 1938, where he helped build up the department until his retirement in 1966. He died in Palo Alto, California. His doctoral students include Paul Rosenbloom and Joseph Ullman.
6. April: H. Zimmermann: Die Lagerungen bei Knickversuchen und ihre Fehlerquellen. pp. 95 - 109.
20. April: M. von Laue & W. Gordon: Ein Verfahren zur Bestimmung der Wärmeleitfähigkeit bei Gluehtemperaturen. pp. 112- 117
20. April: M. von Laue: Die Bedeutung des Nullkegels in der allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie. pp. 118- 126
Max Theodor Felix von Laue ( 1879 – 1960) , German physicist who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1914 for his discovery of the diffraction of X-rays by crystals. In addition to his scientific endeavours with contributions in optics, crystallography, quantum theory, superconductivity, and the theory of relativity, he had a number of administrative positions which advanced and guided German scientific research and development during four decades. A strong objector to National Socialism, he was instrumental in re-establishing and organizing German science after World War II.
20. April: Stefanie Lichtenstein: Agglutination bei Algen, Hefen und Flaggelaten. Zur Frage des Mechanismus der Zellreaktion. pp 127- 134
4. Mai: K. Buerker: Die Verteilung des Hämoglabins auf die Oberfläche der Erythrocyten. pp 140- 142
18. Mai: : I. Schur: Ueber Ringbereiche im Gebiete der ganzzahligen linearen Substitionen.
pp. 145- 168
Issai Schur (1875–1941) was a mathematician who worked in Germany for most of his life. He studied at Berlin He obtained his doctorate in 1901, became lecturer in 1903 and, after a stay at Bonn, professor in 1919. He considered himself German rather than Jewish, even though he had been born in the Russian Empire in what is now Belarus, and brought up partly in Latvia. For this reason he declined invitations to leave Germany for the United States and Britain in 1934. Nevertheless he was dismissed from his chair in 1935 and, at the instigation of Ludwig Bieberbach (who had previously sympathised with Schur regarding his treatment at the hands of the Nazis), he was forced to resign from the Prussian Academy in 1938. Schur eventually emigrated to Palestine in 1939, and lived his final years in poverty. He died in Tel Aviv on his 66th birthday. As a student of Frobenius, he worked on group representations (the subject with which he is most closely associated), but also in combinatorics and number theory and even theoretical physics. He is perhaps best known today for his result on the existence of the Schur decomposition and for his work on group representations (Schur's lemma). Schur had a number of students, including Richard Brauer, B. H. Neumann, Heinz Prüfer, and Richard Rado. He was a foreign member of the Russian Academy of Sciences from 1929. He published under the name of both I. Schur, and J. Schur, the latter especially in Journal für die reine und angewandte Mathematik. This has led to some confusion.
15. Juni: F. Schottky: Eulersche Punkte.pp. 173- 181
FRIEDRICH HERMANN SCHOTTKY ( 1851 - 1935) In 1892 Schottky was appointed to a chair at Marburg University and in 1902 to one at Berlin, where he remained until 1922. In 1902 he was elected a fellow of the Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften and, in 1911, a corresponding member of the Akademie der Wissenschaften in Göttingen. His thesis was an important contribution to the conformal mapping of multiply connected plane domains and was the origin of the famous mapping of a domain bounded by three disjoint circles, which, continued by mirror images, provides an example of an automorphic function with a Cantor set boundary. The dissertation also dealt with the conformal mapping of domains bounded by circular and conic arcs. A contribution to the realm of Picard’s theorem, known as Schottky’s theorem , is an absolute estimation C(f(0).?z? for functions f(z) defined in ?z?<1 and omitting the values 0.1. Schottky also initiated the study of the oscillation, at the boundary, of regular functions defined in the unit circle . The greater part of Schottky’s work concerned elliptic, Abelian, and theta functins, a subject on which he wrote a book . He published some fifty-five papers, most of them in Journal für die reine und angewandte Mathematik, Mathematische Annalen, an Sitzungsberichte der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin. His work is difficult to read. Although he was a student of Weierstrass, his approach to function theory was Riemannian in spirit, combined with Weierstrassian rigor.
15. Juni: Albrecht Penck: Die Terrassen des Isartales in den Alpen. pp. 182- 208
22. Juni: W. Noddack, F. Streuber und H. Scheffers: Unterschreitung des Schwellenwertes photographischer Platten durch Kornzählung. pp. 210- 213
Walter NODDACK ( Berlin, 1893 - Bamberg, 1960) Noddack attended the secondary school in his native city and then entered the University of Berlin in 1912 to study chemistry, physics, and mathematics. World War I interrupted his studies and he therefore did not receive his doctorate until 1920. His dissertation, completed under the direction of W. Nernst, examined Einstein’ law of photochemical equivalence. Noddack then worked for two years with Nernst at the physical Chemistry Institute of the University of Berlin, and in 1922 he became director of the chemical laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Reichsanstalt under Nernst. Noddack’s principal achievement was the discovery of element seventy-five of the periodic table, which he called rhenium (after the Rhine) Noddack’s second major field of research was photochemistry. In 1920 he found, on a photographic plate, that under suitable conditions an absorbed quantum hv of blue or ultraviolet radiation corresponds to a silver atom
22. Juni: Albrecht Penck: Ablagerungen und Schicht stoerungen der letzten Interglazialzeit in den noerdlichen Alpen. pp. 214- 251
Albrecht Penck (1858 – 1945), German geographer and geologist . Born in Reudnitz near Leipzig, Penck became a university professor in Vienna from 1885 to 1906, and in Berlin from 1906 to 1927. There he was also the director of the Institute and Museum for Oceanography by 1918. Penck dedicated himself to geomorphology and climatology and raised the international profile of the Vienna School of physical geography. In 1945, Penck died in Prague. Since 1886, he was married to the sister of the successful Bavarian regional writer Ludwig Ganghofer. In memory of Penck, the painter and sculptor Ralf Winkler adopted the nom de plume A. R. Penck in 1966. Albrecht Penck was elected a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in 1905.
6. Juli: A. Fränkel: Der Begriff >>definit<< und die Unabhängigkeit des Auswahlaxioms. pp. 253- 257
6. Juli: Hans Hamburger: Ein Satz ueber Kurvennetze auf geschlossenen Flächen. pp. 258- 262.20. Juli: G. Hellmann: Die Sonnenscheindauer in Deutschland. pp. 266- 293
Hans Ludwig Hamburger ( 1889 - 1956 ) , German mathematician. He was a professor at the universities of Berlin, Cologne and Ankara. He obtained his Ph.D. from the University of Munich in 1914 under the supervision of Alfred Pringsheim and after war service obtained his Habilitation for a thesis on Extensions of the Stieltjes moment problem. He was appointed Privatdozent at the University of Berlin in 1921 and professor at the University of Cologne in 1926. He left Cologne in 1935, after the imposition of the Nuremberg Laws, and returned to his mother's home in Berlin. In 1939, he left Germany, and from 1941 to 1946 he was lecturer at the University of Southampton. After the war, he received an invitation to return to Cologne, but instead moved to the University of Ankara in 1947. He returned to Cologne in 1953.
20. Juli: Robert Schneider: Verbreitung und Bedeutung des Eisens im animalischen Organismus. Im Besondern erforscht am Seetierleben des Golfes von Neapel (Inhaltsbericht) pp. 294 - 209
27. Juli: Albrecht Penck: Glaziale Krustenbewegungen. pp 305 - 314
27. Juli: Fritz Weigert & Karl Kellermann: Zur Photochemie des Chlorknallgases. Pp., 315- 320.
Fritz Weigert (1876 - 1947) , German physical chemist. He published major contributions in the field of photochemistry.
27, Juli: 1921 : R. Fick: Ueber die Gewichts- und Querschnittverhältnisse der Hundemuskeln. Pp. 321- 352
27. Juli: 1921: F. Fick: Tätigkeitsanpassung der Gelenke und Muskeln nach Versuchen am Hund. Pp. 353- 383.
Rudolf Armin Fick (1866 – 1939 ) Retired from the chair of anatomy in the University of Berlin in 1935. He brought down to the rising generation of German anatomists the great traditions of Gegenbaur and of Koelliker. Indeed Prof. Fick’s first appointment was in Koelliker’s department at Würzburg. His earliest research work was on the ripening of the cells of reproduction, which led to his becoming assistant to Wilhelm His in Leipzig. There the nature of his inquiries took a new direction; he applied to the study of the human body a more complete understanding of mechanics than had been dono previously. The results of his studies are embodied in his “Handbuch der Anatomie und Mechanik der Gelenke” (1904–1911; 3 vols.). His fellow anatomists admired his researches more than they studied them. In all he did there are to be seen care and accuracy. This is particularly true of his pioneer research into the anatomy of the orang—carried out on adult animals which died in the Zoological Gardens of Leipzig towards the end of the nineteenth century. Obituary in Nature (15 July 1939) |
19. Oktober: G. Haberlandt: Die Vorstufen und Ursachen der Adventivembryonie. Pp. 386- 406 + one folding plate.
2. November: F. Schottky: Zur Frage: Haben die klassenfunktionen Differentialgleichungen. Pp. 414- 423.2. November: H. Rubens und K. Hoffmann¨Ueber die Strahlung geschwärzter Flächen. Pp. 424- 435.
16. November 1922: Karl Willy Wagner: Der physikalische Vorgang beim elektrischen Durchschlag von festen Isolatoren. Pp. 438 - 446.
23. November 1922: Albert Einstein: Bemerkung zu der Abhandlung von E. Trefftz: Das statische Gravitationsfeld zweier Massenpunkte in der Einsteinschen Theorie. Pp. 448 - 449
7. Dezember 1922: E. Gehrcke und E.Lau: Ueber das Viellinienspektrum des Wasserstoffs. Pp. 453 - 458 + 2 plates.
Ernst J. L. Gehrcke ( 1878 - 1960 ) , German experimental physicist. He was director of the optical department at the Reich Physical and Technical Institute. Concurrently, he was a professor at the University of Berlin. He developed the Lummer–Gehrcke method in interferometry, he discovered anode rays, and he developed the multiplex interferometric spectroscope for precision resolution of spectral-line structures. As an anti-relativist, he was a speaker at an event organized in 1920 by the Working Society of German Scientists. He sat on the board of trustees of the Potsdam Astrophysical Observatory. After World War II, he worked at Carl Zeiss Jena, and he helped to develop and become the director of the Institute for Physiological Optics at the University of Jena. In 1949, he began work at the German Office for Materials and Product Testing. In 1953, he became the director of the optical department of the German Office for Weights and Measures. In 1901, Gehrcke joined the Physikalisch-Technische Reichsanstalt (PTR, Reich Physical and Technical Institute, after 1945 renamed the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt). In 1926, he became the director of the optical department, a position he held until 1946. Concurrent with his position at the PTR, he was a Privatdozent at the Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität from 1904 to 1921 and an außerordentlicher Professor (extraordinarius professor) from 1921 to 1946. After the close of World War II, the University was in the Russian sector of Berlin. In 1946, Gehrcke worked at Carl Zeiss AG in Jena, and he helped to develop and become the director of the Institute for Physiological Optics at the Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena. In 1949, he went to East Berlin to the Deutsches Amt für Materialprüfung (German Office for Materials and Product Testing). In 1953, he became the director of the optical department of the Deutsches Amt für Maß und Gewicht (DAMG, German Office for Weights and Measures) in East Berlin, the East German equivalent to the West German Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (Federal Physical and Technical Institute). Gehrcke contributed to the experimental techniques of interference spectroscopy (interferometry), physiological optics, and the physics of electrical discharges in gases. In 1903, with Otto Lummer, he developed the Lummer–Gehrcke method in interferometry. In 1908, with O. Reichenheim, he discovered anode rays. In 1927, with Ernst Gustav Lau, he developed the multiplex interferometric spectroscope for precision resolution of spectral-line structures. Gehrcke, an experimentalist who would not give up the concept of the luminiferous aether, had been critical of relativity since 1911. This played into an event organized by Paul Weyland. Weyland, a radical political activist, professional troublemaker, small-time criminal,  and editor of the anti-Semitic periodical Völkische Monatshefte, organized the Arbeitsgemeinschaft deutscher Naturforscher zur Erhaltung reiner Wissenschaft (Working Society of German Scientists for the Preservation of Pure Science), which was never officially registered. Weyland enlisted the support of prominent scientists, such as the physics Nobel Laureate Philipp Lenard to lend credibility to the Society. The Society held its first and only event on 24 August 1920, featuring lectures against Albert Einstein’s theory of relativity. Weyland gave the first presentation in which he slandered Einstein as a plagiarizer. Gehrcke gave the second and last presentation. Einstein, for entertainment, attended the event with Walther Nernst. Max von Laue, Walther Nernst, and Heinrich Rubens published a brief and dignified response to the event, in the leading Berlin daily Tägliche Rundschau, on 26 August. Einstein published a lengthy reply on 27 August, which he later regretted as it contributed to the public polemics. Anti-Semitism and anti-theoretical physics (especially with respect to the theory of relativity and quantum mechanics) were core elements of the Deutsche Physik movement. The physics Nobel Laureate Philipp Lenard suggested Gehrcke for the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1921.
Ernst Lau (1893 - 1978) , German optician. He is regarded as the inventor of bifocals .Lau studied in Berlin and Tübingen philosophy, physics and psychology. After completing his PhD on the problems of stereoscopic vision he began in 1920 with his work at the Physikalisch- Technical Institute in Berlin. Here he directed until 1946, the Radiation Laboratory . He developed the multiplex Interferenzspektroskop with Ernst Gehrcke in 1927.
In 1946 he founded an Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics , which was acquired by the National Academy of Sciences of the GDR in 1948. Together with G. Jaeckel and Rolf Riekher he filed the first patent for equal vision lenses in 1953. Lau published many papers on stereoscopy interference spectroscopy and microscopy , excitation voltage of spectral lines , artistic portrait photography and application of the double grid. In his honour, the Ernst -Lau street is named in Berlin Adlershof science and business centre.
14. Dezember 1922: C. Correns: Vererbungsversuche mit buntblättrigen Sippen. VI. Einige neue Fälle von Albomaculatio. VII. Ueber die peraurea Sippe der Urtica urenspp. 460 - 486.
Carl Erich Correns (1864 – 1933) , German botanist and geneticist. His research into heredity led to his rediscovery of Gregor Mendel's earlier work. Correns grew hybrids of peas, and of maize, and reached the same interpretation as Mendel, in 1899. The occurrence of cases in which the heterozygote is intermediate (the absence of dominance) was added in a footnote to his 1900 paper. That dominance was not always present had been seen and understood by Mendel, according to his letters to Nägeli. By a quirk of history Correns was a student of Nägeli, a renowned botanist with whom Mendel corresponded about his work with peas. Nägeli failed to understand how significant Mendel's work was. In 1913 Correns became the first director of the newly founded Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Biology in Berlin-Dahlem.
21. Dezember 1922: Karl Heider: Ueber Zahnwechsel bei polychäten Anneliden. Pp. 488 - 491.Namen und Sachregister pp. 494 - 497.
18. Januar: G. Hellmann: Stoerungen im Jährlichen Gange der Temperatur in Deutschland. Pp. 4 - 19
15. Februar: M. von Laue: Die Loesungen der Feldgleichungen der Schwere von Schwarzschild, Einstein und Trefftz und ihre Vereinigung. Pp. 27 - 31
15. Februar: Albert Einstein: Zur allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie. Pp. 32 - 38
1. Januar: Alexander Ostrowski: Einige Bemerkungen ueber Singularitäten Taylorscher und Dirichletscher Reihen. Pp. 39 - 4 (presented on 1th January 1923 )11. Januar: Georg Polya: Ueber die Existenz unendlich vieler singulärer Punkte auf der Konvergenzgeraden gewisser Dirichletscher Reihen. Pp. 45 - 50.
Alexander Markowich Ostrowski (Russian: ( 1893 - 1986,) , mathematician. His father Mark having been a merchant, Alexander Ostrowski attended the Kiev College of Commerce, not a high school, and thus had an insufficient qualification to be admitted to university. However, his extraordinary talent did not remain undetected: Ostrowski's mentor Grave wrote to Landau and Hensel for help. Subsequently Ostrowski began to study mathematics at Marburg University under Hensel's supervision in 1912. After World War I had ended Ostrowski moved on to Göttingen where he wrote his doctoral dissertation and was influenced by Hilbert, Klein and Landau. In 1920, after having obtained his doctorate, Ostrowski moved to Hamburg where he worked as Hecke's assistant and finished his habilitation in 1922.15. März: H. Zimmermann: Die Groessen s und t der Knicktheorie. Pp. 55- 64
George Pólya (Hungarian: Pólya György; 1887 – 1985) , Hungarian mathematician. He was a professor of mathematics from 1914 to 1940 at ETH Zürich and from 1940 to 1953 at Stanford University. He made fundamental contributions to combinatorics, number theory, numerical analysis and probability theory. He is also noted for his work in heuristics and mathematics education. His work included collaborations with Hardy and Littlewood, with papers on mathematical physics, geometry , complex analysis, combinatorics and probability theory. He is perhaps best known for his contribution to mathematical education through his book How To Solve It published in its second edition in 1957 , and still widely regarded half a century later as one of the best expositions of the art of doing mathematics. In a remarkably easy prose style for a book about mathematics, Polya argues that problem solving requires the study of heuristics sand summarizes the problem-solving cycle in four stages: understanding the problem, devising a plan, carrying out the plan, looking back, or ‘see, plan, do, check’.
15. März: R.Fick: Ueber die Zwischenrippenmuskeln. (Vorgetragen am 1. Februar 1923 ) pp. 65- 72
12. April: A. Einstein: Bemerkung zu meiner Arbeit “Zur allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie” pp 76- 77
12. April: F. Schottky: ueber die Gleichung (followed by mathematical formula) pp 79- 105
3. Mai: W.Nernst und W. Noddack: Zur Theorie photochemischer Vorgänge. Pp. 110 -1153. Mai: J. Eggert und W. Noddack: Zur Pruefung des photochemischen Äquivalentgesetzes an Trockenplatten II. Pp 116- 122
Walther Hermann Nernst (25 June 1864 – 18 November 1941) was a German physical chemist and physicist who is known for his theories behind the calculation of chemical affinity as embodied in the third law thermodynamics, for which he won the 1920 Nobel Prize in chemistry. Nernst helped establish the modern field of physical chemistry and contributed to electrochemistry, thermodynamics, solid state chemistry and photochemistry. He is also known for developing the Nernst equation. He also developed an electric piano, the "Neo-Bechstein-Flügel" in 1930 in association with the Bechstein and Siemens companies
3. Mai: I. Schur: Ueber den Zusammenhang zwischen einem Problem der Zahlentheorie und einem Satz ueber algebraische Funktionen. Pp. 123 - 124.
31. Mai: A. Einstein: Zur affinen Feldtheorie. Pp. 137-140
See: Weil, *132: Boni, 141: Interlibrum 278, item 112: A major paper preceded by an * in the Weil bibliography, indicating the importance.: Norman Coll. I, 698: 'Einstein's attempts to formulate a unified field theory stemmed from his dissatisfaction with the general relativity theory, which did not adequately incorporate the electromagnetic field theory into the geometry of space-time. In 1918 Hermann Weyl had begun investigating the possibility of constructing a unified field theory preserving the dimensionality of space time while formally altering its geometry, making it a special case of the class known as affine geometrics. Einstein's first investigation of Weyl's ideas, published in the present paper, introduced the notion of distant parallelism; however, Einstein later rejected Weyl's theory.':
21. Juni: G. Hellmann: Ueber den Ursprung der volkstuemlichen Wetterregeln (Bauernregern) pp. 148 - 170
21. Juni: Hellmuth Kneser: Ueber die Loesungen eines systems gewoehnlicher Differentialgleichungen das der Lipschitzschen Bedingung nicht genuegt. Pp.171 – 174
Hellmuth Kneser (April 16, 1898 – August 23, 1973) was a Baltic German mathematician, who made notable contributions to group theory and topology. His most famous result may be his theorem on the existence of a prime decomposition for 3-manifolds. His proof originated the concept of normal surface, a fundamental cornerstone of the theory of 3-manifolds. He was born in Dorpat, Russian Empire (now Tartu, Estonia) and died in Tübingen, Germany. He was the son of the mathematician Adolf Kneser and the father of the mathematician Martin Kneser. He assisted Wilhelm Süss in the founding of the Mathematical Research Institute of Oberwolfach and served as the director of the institute from 1958 to 1959. Kneser had formulated the problem or non-integer iteration of functions and proved the existence of the entire superfunction of the exponential; on the base of this superfunction he constructed the functional square root of the exponential function as half-iteration of the exponential, i.e. a function ? such that ?(?(z)) = exp(z).; although this superexponential is not real and cannot be considered as tetration. Kneser was a student of David Hilbert. He was an advisor of a number of notable mathematicians, including Reinhold Baer. Hellmuth Kneser was a member of the NSDAP and also the SA. In July 1934 he wrote to Ludwig Bieberbach a short note supporting his anti-semitic views and stating: "May God grant German science a unitary, powerful and continued political position."
5. Juli: Guido Hoheisel: Ueber das Verhalten einer analytischen Funktion in einer Teilumgebung eines singulären Punktes. Pp. 179 – 184.
Guido Hoheisel (1894–1968) Professor of mathematics at the University of Cologne. He did his PhD in 1920 from the University of Berlin under the supervision of Erhard Schmidt. Hoheisel is known for a result on gaps between prime numbers. He proved that if ? denotes the prime-counting function, then there exists a constant ? < 1 such that ?(x + x?) ? ?(x) ~ x?/log(x), as x tends to infinity, implying that if pn denotes the n-th prime number then pn+1 ? pn < pn? for all sufficiently large n. In fact he showed that one may take ? = 2999/33000.
5. Juli: Alexander Ostrowski: Ueber Potenzreihen, die ueberkonvergente Abschnittsfolgen besitzen. Pp. 185 – 192
19. Juli: H. Zimmermann: Die Formaenderungen gekruemmter Staebe durch Druck. Pp. 197 – 205
26. Juli: A. Johnsen: Zur Kinematik der eutektischen Kritallisation pp. 208 -210
26. Juli: H. Rademacher: Ueber die Anwendung der Viggo Brunschen Methode auf die Theorie der algebraischen Zahlkoerper. Pp. 211 – 21826. Juli: R. Fick: Ueber die Maßverhaeltnisse der Hand mit Angaben ueber die Haende von W. v. Waldeyer-Hartz. Pp. 219 – 241, with line drawings on 3 plates, one photograph on page 227 and 4 photographs on folding plates.
Hans Adolph Rademacher ( 1892 - 1969 ), German mathematician, known for work in mathematical analysis and number theory. Rademacher received his Ph.D. in 1916 from the Georg-August-Universität Göttingen; Constantin Carathéodory supervised his dissertation. He was dismissed from his position at the University of Breslau by the Nazis in 1933 due to his public support of the Weimar Republic, and emigrated from Europe in 1934. After leaving Germany, he moved to Philadelphia and worked at the University of Pennsylvania until his retirement in 1962; he held the Thomas A. Scott Professorship of Mathematics at Pennsylvania from 1956 to 1962. Rademacher had a number of well known students, including George Andrews, Paul T. Bateman, and Theodor Estermann. Rademacher performed research in analytic number theory, mathematical genetics, the theory of functions of a real variable, and quantum theory. Most notably, he developed the theory of Dedekind sums.
26. Juli: E. Gehrcke & E. Lau: Das Viellinienspektrum des Wasserstoffs. Zweite Mitteilung. Mit einem Zusatz ueber das kontinuierliche Spektrum. Pp 242 – 252 and one plate. [ see 7 December 1922 for the first part ]
26.Juli: Max Rubner: Die beziehung des Kolloidalzustandes der Gewebe fuer den Ablauf des Wachstums. Pp. 253 – 259.
18. Oktober: H. Zimmermann: Die Knickfestigkeit von staeben mit nicht gerader Achse. Eine erweiterung der Eulerschen Knicktheorie. Pp. 262 - 282.
18. Oktober: G. Haberlandt: Ueber die Ursache des Ausbleibens der Reduktionsteilung in den Samenanlagen einiger parthenogenetischer Angiospermen. Pp. 283 - 294 + one b/w plate.
1. November: G.Hellmann: Physiognomie des Regens in der gemassigten und in der Tropenzone. Pp. 299 - 316.
8. November: Erhard Schmidt: Ueber die Jordanschen Kurvensatz. Pp. 318 – 329.
6. Dezember: M. v. Laue: Zur theorie der von gluehenden Metallen ausgesandten positive Ionen und Elektronen. Pp. 334 - 348
13. Dezember: Max Planck: Die Energieschwankungen bei der Superposition periodischer Schwingungen. Pp 350 – 354.
13. Dezember: Max Planck: Bemerkung zur Quantenstatistik der Energie-schwankungen. Pp. 355 – 358.
13. Dezember: Albert Einstein: Bietet die Feldtheorie Moeglichkeiten fuer die Loesung des Quantenproblems. Pp. 359 – 364.
20. Dezember: Werner Kohlhoerster: Intensitaets- und Richtungsmessungen der durch-dringenden Strahlung. III. Teil gemeinsam mit Gubert v. Salis pp. 366 - 377 + one folding plate.1924 (the meetings were partly presided over by Max Planck)
Werner Heinrich Gustav Kolhörster (1887 –1946), German physicist and a pioneer of research into cosmic rays. He was born in Schwiebus (?wiebodzin), Brandenburg Province of Prussia. While attending the University of Halle, he studied physics under Friedrich Ernst Dorn. Repeating the cosmic ray experiments of Victor Hess, in 1913-14 Kolhörster ascended by balloon to an altitude of 9 km, where he confirmed Hess' result that the ionization rate from cosmic rays was greater at that altitude than at sea level. This was evidence that the source for these ionizing rays came from above the Earth's atmosphere. Kolhörster continued his physics studies at the Physikalisch-Technische Reichsanstalt in Berlin, beginning in 1914. During World War I he made measurements of atmospheric electricity in Turkey. Following the war he became a teacher. He joined the Physikalisch-Technische Reichsanstalt in 1922. In 1928–29, Walter Bothe and Kolhörster used the Geiger-Muller detector to demonstrate that cosmic rays were actually charged particles. The ability of these particles to penetrate the Earth's atmosphere meant that they must be highly energetic. In 1930, Kolhörster started the first institute for the study of cosmic rays in Potsdam, with financial assistance from the Prussian Academy. He became director of the Institut für Hohenstrahlungs-forschung in Berlin-Dahlem in 1935, where he was appointed an ordinary professor. Kolhörster was killed in a car crash in Munich. The crater Kolhörster on the Moon is named in his memory.
14. Februar: C. Caratheodory: Zur Axiomathik der speziellen Relativitaets-theorie. Pp. 12 – 27.
10. Januar: Max Rubner: Ueber eine neue form von respirationsapparaten. Pp. 2 – 5
Max Rubner ( 1854 - 1932) physiologist and hygienist. He studied at the University of Munich under Adolf von Baeye (1835-1917) and Carl von Voit (1831-1908). Afterwards he taught as a professor at the University of Marburg and the Robert Koch Institute of Hygiene at the University of Berlin. Rubner was co-founder of the Kaiser-Wilhelm Institut für Arbeitsphysiologie, and became its director in 1913.
Constantin Carathéodory (or Constantine Karatheodori) ( 1873 – 1950) was a Greek mathematician. He made significant contributions to the theory of functions of a real variable, the calculus of variations, and measure theory. His work also includes important results in conformal representations and in the theory of boundary correspondence. In 1909, Carathéodory pioneered the Axiomatic Formulation of Thermodynamics along a purely geometrical approach 1900 Studies at University of Berlin. 1902 Completed graduation at University of Göttingen (1904 Ph.D, 1905 Habilitation) 1908 Dozent at Bonn 1909 Ordinary Professor at Hannover Technical High School. 1910 Ordinary Professor at Breslau Technical High School. 1913 Professor following Klein at University of Göttingen. 1919 Professor at University of Berlin 1919 Elected to Prussian Academy of Science 1920 University Dean at Ionian University, Smyrna (later, University of the Aegean). 1922 Professor at University of Athens. 1922 Professor at Athens Polytechnic. 1924 Professor following Lindeman at University of Munich. 1938 Retirement from Professorship. Continued working from Bavarian Academy of Science
Constantin Caratheodory (left) with Hungarian mathematician Lipót Fejér (1880–1959)
13. Maerz: H. Ludendorff: Ueber die Radialgeschwindigkeit von € Aurige. Pp 49 -69
28. Februar: Franz Keibel: Zum Kopfproblem. Pp. 30 -43
Franz Keibel (1897 – 1938 ) Editor of Normal Plates of the Development of the Vertebrates , 16 volumes. For this he organized an international project to produce normal plates of various vertebrates plus tables showing individual variations. The authors collected biologically geographically and socially diverse objects. Previously seen in very varied terms, they framed them all as embryos and subjected them to roughly equivalent analyses. Though no new synthesis emerged, the network helped embryology gain institutional independence and confirmed normal plates as essential laboratory aids.
13. Maerz: C.Correns:Ueber den Einfluss des Alters der Keimzellen. I. Dritte Fortsetzung der Versuche zur experimentellen Verschiebung des Geschlechtsverhaeltnisses. Pp. 70 – 104.
Friedrich Wilhelm Hans Ludendorff ( 1873 - 1941) German astronomer and astrophysicist. He was the younger brother of General Erich Ludendorff. After studying Physics, Mathematics and Astronomy in Berlin, he started to work as assistant at the Hamburg observatory in 1897. The following year he changed to the Astrophysica Observatory of Potsdam, where became Observator (1905) and Chief Observator (1915). From 1921 until his retirement in 1938 he was Director of the Observatory. Between 1920 and 1930 he belonged to the Board of the Astronomical Society. He authored several astronomical and astrophysical works (the first was about asteroids, following his graduation in 1896), but is better known for the Ludendorff Catalogue, that lists the most important stars in the globula clustre Messier 13, published in 1905. In 1908 he established the binary character of the star Mizar B (period: 175.6 days), together with North American Astronomer Edwin Brant Frost. He also authored several studies on the astronomy of Pre-Columbian civilizations, especially that of the Mayas.
28-. Maerz: F. Schottky: Ueber de Harmonie des Thetasystems. Erste Mitteilung. Pp. 106 – 120.
27. Maerz: G. Hellmann: Unterssuchungen ueber die jaehrliche Periode der Niederschlaege in Europa. Pp. 122 - 152.
27. Maerz:H. Zimmermann: Die Knickfestigkeit offener und geschlossener Stabzuege (Stabringe). pp. 153 - 165
27. Maerz: Heinrich Mueller-Breslau: Versuche mit auf Biegung und Knickung beansspruchten Flugzeugholmen. Pp. 166 – 176.
1. Mai: I. Schur: Neue Anwendungen der Integralrechnung auf Probleme der Invariantentheorie. Pp. 189 – 208.
1. Mai: Ludwig Bieberbach: Ueber die konforme Kreisabbildung nahezu kreisfoer - miger Bereiche. Pp 181 -188.
Ludwig Georg Elias Moses Bieberbach (1886 –1982) , German mathematician. Born in Goddelau, near Darmstadt, he studied at Heidelberg and under Felix Klein at Göttingen, receiving his doctorate in 1910. is dissertation was titled On the theory of automorphic functions (German: Theorie der automorphen Funktionen). He began working as a Privatdozent at Königsberg in 1910 and as Professor ordinarius at the University of Basel in 1913. He taught at the University of Frankfurt in 1915 and the University of Berlin from 1921–45. Bieberbach wrote a habilitation thesis in 1911 about groups of Euclidean motions – identifying conditions under which the group must have a translational subgroup whose vectors span the Euclidean space – that helped solve Hilbert's 18th problem. He worked on complex analysis and its applications to other areas in mathematics. He is known for his work on dynamics in several complex variables, where he obtained results similar to Fatou's. In 1916 he formulated the Bieberbach conjecture, stating a necessary condition for a holomorphic function to map the open unit disc injectively into the complex plane in terms of the function's Taylor series. In 1984 Louis de Branges proved the conjecture (for this reason, the Bieberbach conjecture is sometimes called de Branges' theorem). There is also a Bieberbach theorem on space groups. In 1928 Bieberbach wrote a book with Issai Schur titled Über die Minkowskische Reduktiontheorie der positiven quadratischen Formen. Bieberbach joined the Sturmabteilung in 1933 and the NSDAP in 1937. He was enthusiastically involved in the efforts to dismiss his Jewish colleagues, including Edmund Landau and his former coauthor Schur, from their posts. Bieberbach was heavily influenced by Theodore Vahlen, another German mathematician and anti-Semite, who along with Bieberbach founded the "Deutsche Mathematik" ("German mathematics") movement and journal of the same name. The purpose of the movement was to encourage and promote a "German" (in this case meaning intuitionistic) style in mathematics. Bieberbach's and Vahlen's idea of having German mathematics was only part of a wider trend in the scientific community in Nazi Germany towards giving the sciences racial character; there were also pseudoscientific movements for "German physics", "German chemistry", and "German biology". In 1945, Bieberbach was dismissed from all his academic positions because of his support of Nazism, but in 1949 was invited to lecture at the University of Basel by Ostrowski, who considered Bieberbach's political views irrelevant to his contributions to the field of mathematics
8. Mai: S. Valentiner und M. Roessiger: Ueber Oekonomie der Fluoreszenzstrahlung. Pp 210 – 215.
15. Mai: Max Rubner: Ueber die Bildung der Koerpermasse im Tierreich und die Beziehung der Masse zum Energieverbrauch. Pp 217 - 234.
10. Juli: Albrecht Penck: Das Hauptproblem der physischen Anthropo-geographie.pp 242 -260
10. Juli: Albert Einstein: Quantentheorie des einatomigen idealen Gases. Pp 261 - 267 (see 29-1-1925 for 2nd part)
31. Juli: F. Keibel: Ueber die Gefaesse von Petromyzonten. Pp. 272 – 273.
FIRST EDITION OF EINSTEIN’S FIRST PAPER ON BOSE–EINSTEIN STATISTICS, Einstein’s “last major innovative contribution to physics” (Pais, Subtle is the Lord, p. 343). Bose-Einstein statistics laid the foundation of quantum statistics; they mark the transition between the old quantum theory of Planck, Bohr and Einstein and the new quantum mechanics developed by Dirac, Schrödinger, Heisenberg and others. ““While presenting a lecture at the University of Dhaka on the theory of radiation and the ultraviolet catastrophe, Satyendra Nath Bose intended to show his students that the contemporary theory was inadequate, because it predicted results not in accordance with experimental results. During this lecture, Bose committed an error in applying the theory, which unexpectedly gave a prediction that agreed with the experiment . . . and Bose realized it might not be a mistake after all . . . Bose adapted this lecture into a short article called "Planck's Law and the Hypothesis of Light Quanta" and submitted it to the Philosophical Magazine. However, the referee's report was negative, and the paper was rejected. Undaunted, he sent the manuscript to Albert Einstein requesting publication in the Zeitschrift fur Physik. Einstein immediately agreed, personally translated the article into German (Bose had earlier translated Einstein's article on the theory of General Relativity from German to English), and saw to it that it was published” (Wikipedia). At the end of Bose’s paper is a footnote that reads “Translated by A. Einstein” and “Note by translator: Bose’s derivation of Planck’s law in my opinion constitutes an important step forward. The method here employed also yields the quantum theory of the ideal gas as I will show in another place.” The paper Einstein referred to there is ‘Quantentheorie des einatomigen idealen gases.’ It extends Bose’s derivation from a ‘gas’ of photons to any gas whatever. “As long as Einstein lived, he never ceased to struggle with quantum physics. As far as his constructive contributions to this subject are concerned, they came to an end with a triple of papers, the first published in September 1924 [the offered paper], the last two in early 1925. In the true Einsteinian style, their conclusions are once again reached by statistical methods, as was the case for all his important earlier contributions to the quantum theory . . . After the papers by Bose and the first one by Einstein came out, Ehrenfest and others objected (so we read in Einstein’s second paper) that “the quanta and molecules, respectively, are not treated as statistically independent, a fact that is not particularly emphasized in our papers.” Einstein replied, “This [objection] is entirely correct.” He went on to stress that the differences between the Boltzmann and the [Bose-Einstein] counting “express indirectly a certain hypothesis on a mutual influence of the molecules which for the time being is of a quite mysterious nature.” With this remark, Einstein came to the very threshold of the quantum mechanics of identical particle systems” (Pais, pp. 428, 430). Bose and Einstein’s work accounts for the cohesive streaming of laser light and the frictionless creeping of superfluid helium, and led to the prediction of the existence of the Bose-Einstein condensate, a dense collection of bosons (which are particles with integer spin, named after Bose), which was demonstrated to exist by experiment in 1995. Shields, “Writings of Albert Einstein” (in Albert Einstein: Philosopher-Scientist , pp. 689-758), no. 185 - also included in Shields’“Chronological list of principal works” on p. 757.
Weil, Albert Einstein: A Bibliography, *142.
23. Oktober: H. Zimmermann: Die Knickfestigkeit gekruemmter Staebe mit elastischer Einspannung. Pp 277 - 290.
13. November: I. Schur: Neue Anwenungen der Integralrechnung auf Probleme der Invariantentheorie. II. Ueber die Darstellung der Drehungsgruppe durch lineare homogene Substitionen. Pp. 297 - 321.
4. Dezember: G. Haberlandt: Zur Entwicklungsphysiologie des Spaltoeffnungs-apparates. Pp 325 – 336.
11. Dezember: H. Weyl: Zur Theorie der Darstellung der einfachen kontinuierlichen Gruppen. ( aus einem Schreiben an Hrn. I. Schur ). Pp. 338 – 345.
11. Dezember: I. Schur: Neue Anwendungen der Integralrechnung auf Probleme der Invariantentheorie. III. Vereinfachung des Integralkalkuels. Realitaetsfragen. Pp 346 - 355.
29. Januar:Albert Einstein: Quantentheorie des einatomigen idealen Gases. Zweite Abhandlung. pp. 3-25
29. Januar: H. Zimmermann: Die Knickfestigkeit der Stabringe. pp. 26- 38
29. Januar: C.Caratheodory: Ueber die Bestimmung der Energie und der absoluten Temperatur mit Hilfe von reversiblen Prozessen. pp. 39- 47
5. Februar: Mx Planck: Zur Frage der Quantelung einatomiger Gase.pp. 49-57.
12. Februar: Felix Bernstein: Beiträge zur Mendelistischen Anthropologie I. Quantitative Rassenanalyse auf Grund von statistischen Beobachtungen ueber den Klangcharakter der Singstimme. pp. 63- 82
12. Februar: H.Ludendorff: Spektralphotometrische Untersuchungen ueber die Sonnenkorona. (Vorgetragen am 27. November 1924 ) pp. 83- 113.
26. Februar: Werner Kohlhoerster: Weitere Messungen der durchdringenden Strahlung am Jungfraujoch. pp. 120- 125 + one folding plate.
5. März: Max Rubner: Unser Brotgetreide in physiologischer und volkwirtschaftlicher Hinsicht. I: Geschichte des Brotes. Seine Verbreitung etc...pp.127- 139.
12. März: A. Sommerfeld und H. Hoenl: Ueber die Multiplett-Linien. pp. 141 -161.
12. März: R. Fick: Anatomische Untersuchungen an einigen der Teneriffaschimpansen namentlich ueber die Gewichts- und Querschnittverhältnisse der Muskeln. (Vorgetragen am 15. November 1923 ). pp. 162- 197.
26. März: G. Hellmann: Grenzwerte der Klimälemente auf der Erde. pp., 200-215.
2. April: Albrecht Penck: Der postglaziale Vulkan von Koefels im Oetztale, pp. 218- 225.
16. April: C. Correns: Untersuchungen ueber polygame Bluetenpflanzen. I. Silene Roemeri Friv. pp. 227- 252.
16. April: F. Schottky: Ueber die Harmonie des Thetasystems. Zweite Mitteilung (vorgetragen am 12. Februar 1925 ) pp. 253-274.
30. April: F. Schottky: Ueber die Harmonie des Thetasystems. Dritte Mitteilung. pp. 277- 284.
30. April: G. Hellmann: Die Verbreitung der Hydrometeore auf der Erde. pp. 285- 298.
14. Mai: Albrecht Penck: Glazialgeologische Beobachtungen in den bayerischen Hochalpen. (vorgetragen am 12. März 1925 ) pp. 301-329.
14. Mai: Albrecht Penck: Alte Breccien und junge Krustenbewegungen in den bayerischen Hochalpen. pp. 330- 348.
14. Mai: Albrecht Penck: Die Eiszeit in den bayerischen Hochalpen. (vorgetragen am 12. März 1925 ) pp. 349-371.
28. Mai: H. Zimmermann: Der Begriff der Knickgrenze. pp. 374- 380.
28. Mai: Ludwig Bieberbach: Ueber die Entwicklung der nichteuklidischen Geometrie im 19. Jahrhundert (vorgetragen am 2. April 1925 ) pp. 381- 398.
11. Juni: Walter Noddack, Otto Berg und Ida Tacke: Zwei neue Elemente der Mangangruppe. Chemischer Teil. von Noddack und Tacke. Roentgenspektroskopischer Teil von Berg und Tacke. (vorgelegt von Hrn. Nernst) pp. 400- 409 + Plate.
9. Juli: A. Einstein: Einheitliche Feldtheorie von Gravitation und Elektrizität. pp. 414 - 419.
R. Ladenburg und H. Kopfermann: Die anomale elektrische Doppelbrechung des Natriumdampfes. (Mitteilung aus dem Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut fuer physikalische Chemie und Elektrochemie, Berlin-Dahlem) Vorgelgt von Hrn Haber. pp 420- 424 .
Rudolf Walter Ladenburg (1882 - 1952 ) A German atomic physicist. He emigrated from Germany as early as 1932 and became a Brackett Research Professor at Princeton University. When the wave of German emigration began in 1933, he was the principal coordinator for job placement of exiled physicist in the United States.Rudolf Ladenburg 1937
16. Juli: H.Zocher und K.Coper: Ueber die Erzeugung optischer Aktivität an Silber durch zirkular polarisiertes Licht. (Aus dem Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut fuer physikalische Chemie und Elektrochemie, Berlin-Dahlem) (vorgelegt von Hrn. Haber) pp. 426 - 431
23. Juli: Erwin Schroedinger: Bemerkungen ueber die statische Entropiedefinition beim idealen Gas. (Vorgelegt von Max Planck) pp. 434- 441.
23. Juli: Max Planck: Ueber die statische Entropiedefinition. pp. 422- 451.
30. Juli- Mitteilung vom 16. Juli: I. Schur: einige Bemerkungen zur Determinantentheorie. pp. 454- 463
30. Juli- Mitt. vom 9. Juli: Carl Mueller: Uebr die sehr duenne, durchsichtige Metallfolien. (Mitteilung aus der Physikalisch-Technischen Reichsanstalt) (vorgelegt von Hr. Paschen am 9. Juli) pp.464- 470. illustrated.
30. Juli: Alexander Ostrowski: Ueber den Schottkyschen Satz und die Borelschen Ungleichungen. (vorgelegt von Hrn. Bieberbach am 25. Juni) pp 471- 484.
30. Juli: Erhardt Schmidt: Ueber das Extremum der Bogenlänge einer Raumkurve bei vorgeschriebenen r Einschränkungen ihrer Kruemmung (vorgetragen am 14 Mai 1925 ) pp. 485- 490
22. Oktober: H. Zimmermann: Der Begriff der Knickgrenze. II. pp. 493- 500
12. November: F. Keibel: Ueber die Bulbus- und Arterienwuelste der Petromyzonten. pp. 510- 513.
12. November : R. Fick: Ueber die Muskelfaserlänge des Armmuskels (m. brachialis) und seiner Abart (Speichenansatz) (Aus der Anatomischen Anstalt der Universität Berlin ) ( Vorgelesen am 11. Juni 1925 ) pp. 514- 524, 2 illistr.
19. November: H. von Ficker: Temperaturgradienten bei Fuehn. (vorgelegt von Hrn. Hellmann ) pp 526- 532.
Heinrich von Ficker (1881 – 1957) , German-Austrian meteorologist and geophysicist who was a native of Munich. He was the son of historian Julius von Ficker (1826–1902). From 1911 he was a professor of meteorology at the University of Graz, and from 1923 to 1937 at the University of Berlin. During his tenure at Berlin, he also spent several years as director of the Prussian Meteorological Institute. From 1937 until his retirement in 1952, he was a professor at University of Vienna and director of the Zentralanstalt für Meteorologie und Geodynamik (Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG). In 1906 and 1910, while based in Innsbruck, Ficker performed extensive scientific studies involving the dynamics of Alpine foehn winds. With biometeorologist Bernhard de Rudder (1894–1962), he was the author of the treatise Föhn und Föhnwirkungen (Foehn and Foehn Effects). Ficker was also responsible for important research of cold fronts and heat waves that occur in Russia and northern Asia.
19. November : G. Hellmann: Ueber die Wetterlage bei guter Fernsicht von Bergeshoehen. (vorgetragen am 12. November ) pp. 533- 538.
19. November: G. Hellmann: Wasserhosen auf dem Atlantischen Ozean. (vorgetragen am 12. November ) pp. 539- 544.
19. November: I. Schur und G. Szegoe: Ueber die Abschnitte einer in Einheitskreise beschränkten Potenzreihe. (vorgelegt am 29. Oktober 1925 ) pp 545- 560.
26. November: A. Merz: Die deutsche Atlantische Expedition auf dem Vermessungs- und Forschungsschiff Meteor. I. Bericht (vorgelegt von Herrn Penck ) pp 562- 586 + 4 folding plates.
10. Dezember: A. Hammerstein: Ueber die Entwicklung eines logarithmisch-unstetigen Kerns nach seinen Eigenfunktionen. (vorgelegt von Hrn. Bieberbach) pp. 590-595.
Adolf Hammerstein ( 1888 – 1941 ) , German mathematician working in the field of analysis. He worked under Edmund Landau in Göttingen. He was professor in Berlin and Kiel . (Hammersteinsche Integralgleichung). One of his pupils was Michael Golomb (1909–2008).
( most meetings presided over by Max Planck, partly unopened)
7. Januar: H. Zimmermann: Die Formaenderungen gekruemmter Staebe bei Laengs- und Querbelastung. pp. 2 – 19
21. Januar: Erwin Schroedinger: die Energiestufen des idealen einatomigen Gasmodells (Vorgelegt von Hrn. Einstein am 7. Januar 1926 ) pp. 23 – 36
11. Februar: H. Zimmermann: Die Knickfestigkeit von Straeben mit Querbelastung. Eine Erweiterung der Eulerschen Knicktheorie. Pp. 39 – 50.
11. Februar: Nernst, W. u. W. Orthmann, Die Verdünnungswärme von Salzen bei sehr kleinen Konzentrationen. I Vorgetragen am 14 . Januar. Pp. 51 – 56.
18. Februar: M. von Laue und H. Mark: Die Zerstreuung inhomogener Röntgenstrahlen an mikrokristallinen Körpern. Sitzungsbericht der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Pp. 58 - 72, mit graph. Darstellungen.
18. Maerz: Wilhelm Hartwig: Die Kristallstruktur einiger Mineralien der regulären HgS-Reihe. Pp. 79 -80
18. Maerz: C.W. Correns: Über die Erklärung der sogenannten Kristallisationskraft. Pp. 81 – 88.
15. April: H. Zimmermann: Die Knickfestigkeit der Stabverbindungen mit Form- und Belastungsfehlern. Pp. 92 – 101.
22. April: Max Bodenstein: Reaktionsgeschindigkeit bei Umsetzungen von Atomen. Pp. 104 -114.
Max Ernst August Bodenstein (1871 - 1942) , German physical chemist known for his work in chemical kinetics. He was first to postulate a chain reaction mechanism and that explosions are branched chain reactions, later applied to the atomic bomb.
15. April: Walter Schottky: Das Gesetz des Tiefempfangs in der Akustik und Elektrodynamik. Pp 117 -131
20. Mai: F. Paschen: Serienenden und molekulare Felder. Pp 135 – 141, one plate/Tafel.
Friedrich Paschen - Louis Karl Heinrich Friedrich Paschen (1865 - 1947), German physicist, known for his work on electrical discharges. He is also known for the Paschen series, a series of hydrogen spectral lines in the infrared region that he first observed in 1908. He established the now widely used Paschen curve in his article "Über die zum Funkenübergang in Luft, Wasserstoff und Kohlensäure bei verschiedenen Drücken erforderliche Potentialdifferenz".Paschen was born in Schwerin, Mecklenburg-Schwerin. From 1884 to 1888 he studied at the universities of Berlin and Strassburg, after which he became an assistant at the Academy of Münster. He became a professor at the Technical Academy of Hanover in 1893 and professor of physics at the University of Tübingen in 1901. He served as president of the Physikalisch-Technischen Reichsanstalt from 1924–33 and an honorary professor of the University of Berlin in 1925. He taught there until his death in Potsdam in 1947.
26.Mai: Adolf Kneser: Neue Theorie Der Konjugierten Punkte Bei Gewissen Klassen Von Aufgaben Der Variationsrechnung . pp. 142 - 168
3. Juni: G. Haberlandt: Über den Blattbau der Crataegomespili von Bronvaux und ihrer Eltern. Pp. 170 – 207, 17 figs.
17. Juni: H. Weyl: Beweis des Fundamentalsatzes in der Theorie der fastperiodischen Funktionen (aus einem Schreiben an Hrn. Harald Bohr) pp. 211 - 214.
17. Juni: F. Schottky: Ueber die analytische Aufgabe der Bewegung eines starren Ko?rpers im vierdimensionalen Raume. Pp. 215 – 241.
17, Juni: G.Szegö: Ein Beitrag zur Theorie der Thetafunktionen. Pp. 242 - 252.
24. Juni: R. Ladenburg, H. Kopfermann und A. Carst: Untersuchungen über die anomale Dispersion angeregter Gase. Pp. 255 – 273. With illustrations.
8. Juli: P.Guthnick & R. Prager: Die Verwendung kurzbrennweitiger photographischer Objektive in der Astronomie ? acht neue Vera?nderliche kurzer Periode ) pp. 275 – 289, with tables and graphs.
Paul Guthnick (1879 –1947) ,German astronomer. Born in Hitdorf am Rhein, he studied at the University of Bonn receiving his doctorate in 1901 under Friedrich Küstner. He worked from 1901 at the Royal Observatory of Berlin and studied variable stars and specifically Mira. As Berlin expanded, it became less possible to conduct astronomical observations there and Guthnick used, from 1906 onwards, the local park known as Babelsberg. An observatory was later built there after approval by the government. He was appointed professor of astrophysics at the University of Berlin in 1916. In 1921, he became director of the Babelsberg Observatory. He conducted observations of the stars of the Southern Hemisphere on an expedition to Windhoek in 1929. After the seizure of power by the Nazis in 1933, Guthnick adapted himself to new conditions under the regime, although he opposed the Welteislehre theories that were favoured by Himmler. The lunar crater Guthnick is named after him.
22. Juli: Ludwig Bieberbach : Über Tchebychefsche Netze Auf Flachen Negativer Krummung, Sowie Auf Einigen Weiteren Flachenarten. Pp. 294 - 321
22. Juli: A. Johnsen: Form und Brillanz der Brillanten. Pp. 322 - 330.
21. Oktober: Albert Einstein: Über die Interferenzeigenschaften des durch Kanalstrahlen emittierten Lichtes. Pp 334 - 340
21. Oktober: E. Rupp: Über die Interferenzeigenschaften des Kanalstrahllichtes. Pp. 341 - 351
Contains Einstein's theories on wave-particle duality and German physicist Rupp's work on the same subject, seemingly corroborating Einstein's theories. Rupp's experimental results later turned out to have been falsifications, and today he is mainly known as the protagonist in one of the biggest scandals in physics in the 20th century.
Emil Rupp (Philipp Heinrich Emil Rupp, 1898–1979) , a German physicist, regarded by many as a respectable and important experimentalist in the late 1920s. He was later forced to recant all five of the papers he had published in 1935, admitting that his findings and experiments had been fictions. There is evidence that most if not all of his earlier experimental results were forged as well.
In 1926 Rupp's canal ray experiments seemed to corroborate Einstein's theories on wave-particle duality. He published these results in a paper that was printed next to a theoretical paper on the same subject by Einstein, who evidently accepted Rupp's alleged findings as confirming his (Einstein's) theoretical model. Rupp's experimental results were later shown to have been falsified (although subsequent experimental work re-confirmed Einstein's model). Although the validity of Rupp's experimental results had been challenged by other workers in the field repeatedly throughout his career, it wasn't until 1935 that his misdeeds were fully exposed. In 1935 experimentalists Walther Gerlach and Eduard Rüchardt published a corrected version of Einstein's mirror diagram in an article that argued that Rupp had falsely claimed to have carried out the rotated mirror experiment. Some fellow physicists at the AEG labs grew suspicious of Rupp when he claimed having accelerated protons at 500 kV, something he couldn't have the technical facilities to achieve. Rupp had to publicly retract five publications from the previous year. He attached a psychiatric diagnosis by Dr. Emil von Gebsattel that said he had written them under the influence of "dreamlike states" caused by psychasthenia. Rupp never worked again as a physicist, and all other physicists ceased to refer to any of his alleged results. Rupp published a number of papers on the interference properties of light emitted by canal ray sources. These articles, particularly the present that came into being in close collaboration with Albert Einstein, attracted quite a lot of attention, as they probed the wave versus particle nature of light. They also significantly propelled Rupp's career, even though they were considered highly controversial to begin with. In April 1926, Albert Einstein proposed to Emil Rupp to carry out two experiments that were to prove the wave nature of light versus the particle nature of light: the so-called 'Wire Grid Experiment' and the 'Rotated Mirror Experiment', experiments that Einstein had worked on theoretically and now would like to gain confirmation of through experiments. Rupp, at the time regarded as one of the most important and most competent experimental physicists, gladly took up the challenge. Rupp's observations - though highly controversial - confirmed Einstein's theory. Due to the surprising outcome of the experiments, Einstein was interested in exactly how it they were conducted, as Rupp's initial descriptions did not convince him that the results were feasible. "Rupp stood by his observations and suggested yet other circumstances that might explain them. Did Einstein now realize that there was something rather dubious about Rupp's work? He had seen him change his data repeatedly-and each time in better accordance with his own criticism, and on one occasion in no less than two days. He had had to accept that Rupp claimed to earlier have "unknowingly" or "unconsciously" rotated a mirror, and he will likely have seen that Rupp's work was highly controversial amongst experimentalists, leading to very public criticism in Die Naturwissenschaften. He himself was now also convinced that, in fact, Rupp's results were incomprehensible. So, did Einstein choose to suspend the publication of Rupp's piece, so that an additional round of checks and balances could take place. The answer is no: Rupp's paper was presented by Einstein to the Prussian Academy in a session on 21 October 1926, and it appeared in print in the Academy's proceedings in November of 1926-the articles by Einstein and Rupp came out back to back, and reprints circulated with both papers bound together, with a joint cover page that displayed both titles. Einstein referred in his article to Rupp's claims and he had even written the abstract of Rupp's paper" (Dongen: "Emil Rupp, Albert Einstein and the Canal Ray Experiments on Wave-Particle"). The first clear indication that Rupp's work was impossible to recreate came in 1930 in a paper published by Staub - nothing was wrong with Einstein's theory but Rupp's work was simply impossible: "Rupp immediately set out to respond to Straub's publication. On 12 July 1930 he sent a first draft to Einstein, to whom he also announced his intention of redoing his canal ray experiments-Straub was dismissed as a clumsy graduate student with a lousy apparatus. Einstein suggested inviting Straub once Rupp had his experiment up and running again, but cautioned him not to engage the polemic in too sharp a tone". Rupp managed to convince the physics society and continued to publish the new few years. In 1934 various different physicians pointed out that Rupp's work was impossible to recreate, and in 1935 the final blow to Rupp's career came about, when the German Physical Society's decided not to allow any citations of Rupp's work. This seems to have had very severe consequences, as today it is almost impossible to find any quotations - or even mentioning of Rupp in general, let alone his fraud - in any historical studies of either quantum theory or of Einstein. Despite the unquestionable fraud by Rupp, his experiments and collaboration with Einstein might have had a positive influence on the further progression to quantum mechanics. The two present papers became of seminal importance in the discussions between Bohr and Heisenberg, which eventually in 1927 resulted in Heisenberg publishing his landmark thesis on the uncertainty principle. When Max Born received the Nobel Prize in physics he stated that: "An idea of Einstein gave me the lead [From the present paper]. He had tried to make the duality of particles-light quanta or photons-and waves comprehensible by interpreting the square of the optical wave amplitudes as probability density for the occurrence of photons."
4. November: E. Study: Vereinfachte Begründung von Lies Kugelgeometrie I, pp. 360 – 383
Eduard Study ( 1862 - 1930) Study, the son of a Gymnasium teacher, studied mathematics and science, beginning in 1880, at the universities of Jena, Strasbourg, Leipzig, and Munich. One of his favorite subjects was biology, and even late in life he investigated entomological questions and assembled an imposing butterfly collection. He received the doctorate from the University of Munich in 1884 and the following year became a Privatdozent in mathematics at Leipzig, where he was influenced chiefly by Paul Gordan, an expert in invariant theory. With Corrado Segre, Study was one of the leading pioneers in the geometry of complex numbers. He systematically constructed the analytic geometry of the complexly extended Euclidean spaces R2 and R3; and, with Fubini, he was the first to introduce metrics for these spaces . His contributions to complex differential geometry include the first systematic studies of isotropic curves and the introduction of isotropic parameters
4. November: Max Rubner: die Beziehung zwischen Nahrungsaufwand und körperlichen Leistungen des Menschen.pp. 384 – 403.
25. November: Richard Brauer: Uber Zusammenhänge zwischen arithmetischen und invariantentheoretischen Eigenschaften von Gruppen linearer Substitutionen.pp. 410 – 416.
Richard Dagobert Brauer (1901 – 1977) was a leading German and American mathematician. He worked mainly in abstract algebra, but made important contributions to number theory. He was the founder of modular representation theory. As a boy, Richard dreamt of becoming an inventor, and in February 1919 enrolled in Technische Hochschule Berlin-Charlottenburg. He soon transferred to University of Berlin. Except for the summer of 1920 when he studied at University of Freiburg, he studied in Berlin, being awarded his doctorate 16 March 1926. Issai Schur conducted a seminar and posed a problem in 1921 that Richard and his brother Alfred worked on together, and published a result. The problem also was solved by Heinz Hopf at the same time. Richard wrote his thesis under Schur, providing an algebraic approach to irreducible, continuous, finite-dimensional representations of real orthogonal (rotation) groups. Brauer began his teaching career in Königsberg (now Kaliningrad) working as Konrad Knopp’s assistant. He expounded central division algebras over a perfect field while in Königsberg; the isomorphism classes of such algebras form the elements of the Brauer group he introduced. He worked at: Princeton's Institute for Advanced Study in 1934,. The University of Toronto, the University of Wisconsin , Ann Arbor, Michigan where he and Robert M. Thrall contributed to the program in modern algebra at University of Michigan. In 1952 Brauer joined the faculty of Harvard University
25. November: Rudolf Fick: Maßverhaltnisse an Den Oberen Gliedmaßen des Menschen und den Gliedmaßen Der Menschenaffen. Pp 411 – 451. With graphs and 7 illustrations
2. Dezember: Max Planck: Über die Begründung des zweiten Hauptsatzes der Thermodynamik. Pp. 453 - 463
9. Dezember: F. Simon: Thermisch erregte Quantensprünge in festen Körpern. Pp. 477 – 487.
9. Dezember: Edmund Landau: Der Picard-Schottkysche Satz und die Blochsche Konstante. Pp. 467 – 474
Edmund Georg Hermann Landau (1877 – 1938) , German mathematician who worked in the fields of number theory and complex analysis. Edmund Landau was born in Berlin. His father was Leopold Landau, a gynecologist and his mother was Johanna Jacoby. Landau studied mathematics at the University of Berlin and received his doctorate in 1899 and his habilitation (the post-doctoral qualification required in German universities) in 1901. His doctoral thesis was 14 pages long. In 1905 he married Marianne Ehrlich, the daughter of the biologist Paul Ehrlich, who was awarded the 1908 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Landau taught at the University of Berlin from 1899 until 1909 and held a chair at the University of Göttingen from 1909 onwards. Himself Jewish, in the 1920s Landau was instrumental in establishing the Mathematics Institute at the nascent Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
Landau taught himself Hebrew, with the intent of eventually settling in Jerusalem. At the groundbreaking ceremony of the Hebrew University on April 2, 1925 he lectured in Hebrew on the topic Solved and unsolved problems in elementary number theory. He negotiated with the President of the University, Judah Magnes, regarding the details of his position at the University and the building that was to house the Mathematics Institute. In 1927 Landau and his family emigrated to Palestine, and he began teaching at the Hebrew University. The Landau family had difficulty adjusting to the primitive living standards then available in Jerusalem. In addition, Landau became a pawn in a struggle for control of the University between Magnes , Chaim Weizmann and Albert Einstein. Magnes suggested that Landau be appointed rector of the University, but Einstein and Weizmann supported Selig Brodetsky. Landau was disgusted by the dispute, not of his own making, and he decided to return to Göttingen. He remained there until he was forced out by the Nazi regime in 1933 and thereafter he lectured only outside of Germany. In 1934 he moved to Berlin, where he died in early 1938 of natural causes. In 1903 Landau gave a much simpler proof than was then known of the prime number theorem and later presented the first systematic treatment of analytic number theory in the Handbuch der Lehre von der Verteilung der Primzahlen, or simply the Handbuch. He also made important contributions to complex analysis. G. H. Hardy wrote that no one was ever more passionately devoted to mathematics than Landau.
16. Dezember: Issai Schur: Zur additive Zahlentheorie. Pp 488 - 495.
Index of names
1927-1928 in one volume together
6. Januar: Albert Einstein und J. Grommer: Allgemeine Relativitätstheorie und Bewegungsgesetz. Pp. 2 – 13
10. Februar: E. Landau: Über die Nullstellen Dirichletscher Reihen. Zweite Abhandlung. Pp. 19 – 21
17. Februar: Albert Einstein: Zu Kaluzas Theorie des Zusammenhanges von Gravitation und Elektrizität.
Erste Mitteilungpp. 23 - 25
17. Februar: Albert Einstein: Zu Kaluzas Theorie des Zusammenhanges von Gravitation und Elektrizität.
Zweite Mitteilung. Pp. 26 – 30
Kaluza's theory was criticized on the ground that the 5th dimension is a purely mathematical artifice with only a formalistic significance and no physical meaning whatever. Nevertheless, the five dimensional idea was explored by several mathematical physicists. The most important of these were O. Klein, L. de Broglie, Einstein, E.P.Jordan, and Y.R. Thiry.':see: . Weil, 156: Boni, 170: Interlibrum 278, item 133: Schillp-Shields, 212: Hoffmann, Einstein, pp. 224 and foll. 'Eddington built a unified field theory similar to but more general than Weyl's in 1921. But in the same year T. Kaluza took quite a different tack. Introducing a somewhat atrophied fifth dimension, he wrote down Einstein's gravitational equations unchanged - but for five dimensions instead of four. And behold they linked gravitation and electromagnetism without further ado. In 1923 Einstein extended Eddington's work. Soon, however, he became dissatisfied with what he had constructed, and in 1925 produced a different "unified field theory". ...In 1930, Einstein and his collaborator Mayer had sent in for publication a quite different theory, designed to retain the essence of Kaluza's five dimensional idea while remaining in 4 dimensions. This attempt too, Einstein ultimately abandoned.
24. Februar: G. Haberlandt: Zur Zytologie und Physiologie des Weiblichen Gametophyten von Oenothera. Pp. 33 – 47
17. März: I. Schur: Über die rationalen Darstellungen der allgemeinen linearen gruppe. Pp 58 – 75
17. März J[ohn] von Neumann, Zur Theorie der Darstellungen kontinuierlicher Gruppen, pp. 76 - 90.
John von Neumann ( 1903 –1957) Hungarian-born American pure and applied mathematician and polymath. He made major contributions to a number of fields, including mathematics (foundations of mathematics, functional analysis, ergodic theory, geometry, topology, and numerical analysis), physics (quantum mechanics, hydrodynamics, and fluid dynamics), economics (game theory), computer science (Von Neumann architecture, linear programming, self-replicating machines, stochastic computing), and statistics. He was a pioneer of the application of operator theory to quantum mechanics, in the development of functional analysis, a principal member of the Manhattan Project and the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton (as one of the few originally appointed), and a key figure in the development of game theory and the concepts of cellular automata, the universal constructor, and the digital computer..
Von Neumann's mathematical analysis of the structure of self-replication preceded the discovery of the structure of DNA. In a short list of facts about his life he submitted to the National Academy of Sciences, he stated "The part of my work I consider most essential is that on quantum mechanics, which developed in Göttingen in 1926, and subsequently in Berlin in 1927–1929. Also, my work on various forms of operator theory, Berlin 1930 and Princeton 1935–1939; on the ergodic theorem, Princeton, 1931–1932." Along with Hungarian-born American theoretical physicist Edward Teller and Polish mathematician Stanislaw Ulam, von Neumann worked out key steps in the nuclear physics involved in thermonuclear reactions and the hydrogen bomb. Von Neumann wrote 150 published papers in his life; 60 in pure mathematics, 20 in physics, and 60 in applied mathematics. His last work, an unfinished manuscript written while in the hospital and later published in book form as The Computer and the Brain, gives an indication of the direction of his interests at the time of his death.
24. März: Werner Kolhörster und Gubert von Salis: Die tägliche Periode der Höhenstrahlung. Pp. 92 – 104, one graph on folding plate.
Der Royal society in London zur Feier des hundertsten Geburtstages von Josph Lister. P. 107
19. Mai: Paul Guthnick: Vergleichung lichtelektrischer, photographischer und visueller photometrischer Beobachtungen der vier hellen Jupitersatelliten. Pp 112 - 134
19. Mai: Nernst, W. und W. Orthmann, Die Verdünnungswärme von Salzen bei sehr kleinen Konzen-trationen II. PP 136 – 141.
16. Juni: E. Hopf: Elementare Bemerkungen über die Lösungen partieller Differential-gleichungen zweiter Ordnung vom elliptischen Typus. Pp. 147 – 152.
Eberhard Frederich Ferdinand Hopf (1902 - 1983) , mathematician and astronomer, one of the founding fathers of ergodic theory and a pioneer of bifurcation theory who also made significant contributions to the subjects of partial differential equations and integral equations, fluid dynamics, and differential geometry. The Hopf maximum principle is an early result of his (1927) which is one of the most important techniques in the theory of elliptic partial differential equations.
14. Juli: G. Pólya: Elementarer Beweis einer Thetaformel. Pp. 158 – 161.
21. Juli: Paul Koebe: Riemannsche Mannigfaltigkeiten Und Nichteuklidische Raumformen. (Erste Mitteilung.) pp. 164 – 196.
Paul Koebe ( 1882 –1945) , 20th-century German mathematician. His work dealt exclusively with the complex numbers, his most important results being on the uniformization of Riemann surfaces in a series of four papers in 1907–1909. He did his thesis at Berlin, where he worked under Hermann Schwarz. He was an extraordinary professor at Leipzig from 1910 to 1914, then an ordinary professor at the University of Jena before returning to Leipzig in 1926 as an ordinary professor.
17. November: F. Paschen: Die Lichtanregung durch den metastabilen Zustand der Eielgasatome. Pp. 207 – 213 + one folding plate.
8. Dezember: Richard Brauer und Emmy
Noether: Über minimale Zerfällungskörper
irreduzibler Darstellungen, pp. 221 – 228
Emmy Noether official name Amalie Emmy Noether (1882 –1935), was an influential German mathematician known for her groundbreaking contributions to abstract algebra and theoretical physics. Described by Pavel Alexandrov, Albert Einstein, Jean Dieudonné, Hermann Weyl, Norbert Wiener and others as the most important woman in the history of mathematics, she revolutionized the theories of rings, fields, and algebras. In physics, Noether's theorem explains the fundamental connection between symmetry and conservation laws. She was born to a Jewish family in Erlangen; her father was mathematician Max Noether. She studied mathematics at the University of Erlangen, where her father lectured. After completing her dissertation in 1907 under the supervision of Paul Gordan, she worked at the Mathematical Institute of Erlangen without pay for seven years (at the time women were largely excluded from academic positions). In 1915, she was invited by David Hilbert and Felix Klein to join the mathematics department at the University of Göttingen, a world-renowned center of mathematical research. The philosophical faculty objected, however, and she spent four years lecturing under Hilbert's name. Her habilitation was approved in 1919, allowing her to obtain the rank of Privatdozent. Noether remained a leading member of the Göttingen mathematics department until 1933; her students were sometimes called the "Noether boys". In 1924, Dutch mathematician B. L. van der Waerden joined her circle and soon became the leading expositor of Noether's ideas: her work was the foundation for the second volume of his influential 1931 textbook, Moderne Algebra. By the time of her plenary address at the 1932 International Congress of Mathematicians in Zürich, her algebraic acumen was recognized around the world. The following year, Germany's Nazi government dismissed Jews from university positions, and Noether moved to the United States to take up a position at Bryn Mawr College in Pennsylvania. She died there in 1935 .
8. Dezember: Helmut Hasse: Existenz gewisser algebraischer Zahlkörper. Pp. 229 -234.8.
Helmut Hasse (1898 – 1979) , German mathematician working in algebraic number theory, known for fundamental contributions to class field theory, the application of p-adic numbers to local classfield theory and diophantine geometry (Hasse principle), and to local zeta functions.
8. Dezember: Albert Einstein: Allgemeine Relativita?tstheorie und Bewegungsgesetz. Pp . 235 -245.
15. Dezember: H. von Ficker: Das meteorologische System von Wilhelm Blasius. Pp. 248 – 267.
15. Dezember: W.Cauer: Über die Variablen eines passive Vierpols. Pp 268 - 274
Wilhelm Cauer ( 1900 – 1945 ), German mathematician and scientist. He is most noted for his work on the analysis and synthesis of electrical filters and his work marked the beginning of the field of network synthesis. Prior to his work, electronic filter design used techniques which accurately predicted filter behaviour only under unrealistic conditions. This required a certain amount of experience on the part of the designer to choose suitable sections to include in the design. Cauer placed the field on a firm mathematical footing, providing tools that could produce exact solutions to a given specification for the design of an electronic filter. Cauer initially specialised in general relativity but soon switched to electrical engineering. His work for a German subsidiary of the Bell Telephone Company brought him into contact with leading American engineers in the field of filters. This proved useful when Cauer was unable to feed his children during the German economic crisis of the 1920s and he moved to the US. He studied early computer techniques in the US prior to returning to Germany. The rise of Nazism in Germany stifled Cauer's career because he had a remote Jewish ancestor. Cauer was shot dead during the fall of Berlin by Soviet soldiers. The manuscripts for some of Cauer's most important unpublished works were destroyed during the war. However, his family succeeded in reconstructing much of this from his notes and volume II of Theorie der linearen Wechselstromschaltungen was published after his death. Cauer's legacy continues today, with network synthesis being the method of choice for network design.
15. Dezember: Otto Hahn: Das Protactinium als radioaktives und als chemisches Element. Pp. 275 - 288 Otto Hahn, OBE, ForMemRS ( 1879 – 1968) , German chemist and pioneer in the fields of radioactivity and radiochemistry who won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for the discovery of nuclear fission. He is regarded as one of the most significant chemists of all times and especially as "the father of nuclear chemistry". Hahn was an opponent of Jewish persecution by the Nazi Party and after World War II he became a passionate campaigner against the use of nuclear energy as a weapon. He served as the last President of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society (KWG) in 1946 and as the founding President of the Max Planck Society (MPG) from 1948 to 1960. Considered by many to be a model for scholarly excellence and personal integrity, he became one of the most influential and revered citizens of the new Federal Republic of Germany.
22. Dezember: H. Seifert: Die Symmetrie von Kristallen des Pentaerythrit. Pp. 289 – 293.
Herbert Karl Johannes Seifert ( 1907, – 1996 ) , German mathematician known for his work in topology. In 1926 Seifert entered the Dresden University of Technology. The next year he attended a course on topology given by William Threlfall. This would be the beginning both of his lifelong work in the subject and his friendship with Threlfall. In the year 1928-29 he visited the University of Göttingen, where topologists such as Pavel Sergeevich Alexandrov and Heinz Hopf were working. In 1930 he received his doctorate. He then moved to the University of Leipzig, where he received his second doctorate in 1932. It was here that Seifert submitted his dissertation, Topologie 3-dimensionaler gefaserter Räume (“Topology of 3-dimensional fibred spaces”), on 1 February 1932, and he was awarded with this doctorate of philosophy after his oral examination on March 3. The manifolds he studied in his thesis were afterwards named Seifert fiber spaces. Seifert continued to collaborate with Threlfall, and in 1934 (the year Seifert received his habilitation) they published their Lehrbuch der Topologie. In 1938 they published Variationsrechnung im Grossen. In 1935, Seifert was summoned to a post at the University of Heidelberg, where he took a position vacated by the dismissal of a Jewish professor. During World War II he volunteered for a position at a Luftwaffe research center, the Institut für Gasdynamik. After the war, Seifert was one of the few German professors whom the allies trusted during the period of denazification. During 1948-49 Seifert visited the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey. Seifert retired in 1975. His students include Albrecht Dold, Dieter Puppe, and Horst Schubert.
Part 2 – 1928:
19. Januar: W. Nernst: Über die Berechnung der elektrolytischen Dissoziation aus der elektrischen Leitfähihkeit. Pp. 4 -8
19. Januar: Alfred Brauer: Über Sequenzen von Potenzresten. Pp. 9 – 16. .
Alfred Theodor Brauer ( 1894 - 1985) , German-American mathematician who did work in number theory. He studied at the University of Berlin. As he served Germany in World War I, even being injured in the war, he was able to keep his position longer than many other Jewish academics who had been forced out after Hitler's rise to power. In 1935 he lost his position and in 1938 he tried to leave Germany, but was not able to until the following year. He initially worked in the Northeast, but in 1942 he settled into a position at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. A good deal of his works, and the Alfred T. Brauer library, would be linked to this university. He occasionally taught at Wake Forest University after he retired from Chapel Hill at 70. He was the brother of mathematician Richard Brauer, who was the founder of modular representation theory.
19. Januar: A. Hammerstein: Über die Vollständigkeitsrelation in der theorie der fastperiodischen Funktionen. Pp. 17 -20.
9. Februar: Karl Reinhardt: Über die Zerlegung der euklidischen Ebene in kongruente Bereiche. Pp 26 - 46
Karl August Reinhardt ( 1895 – 27 ) , German mathematician who discovered the 5 tile-transitive pentagon tilings and solved the odd case of the biggest little polygon problem.
16. Februar: L.E.J. Brouwer: Intuitionistische Betrachtungen über den Formalismus,.pp. 48 - 52
Luitzen Egbertus Jan Brouwer, 1881 – 1966), Dutch mathematician and philosopher, a graduate of the University of Amsterdam, who worked in topology, set theory, measure theory and complex analysis. He was the founder of the mathematical philosophy of intuitionism.
16. Februar: R. Fick: Bewegungsumfang im Schultergelenk.pp. 53 – 73 , many illustrations and graphs and 3 folding plates
23. Februar: Albrecht Penck: Die Ursachen der Eiszeit. Pp. 76 – 85.
1. März: Karl Dörge: Über den Fundamentalsatz der Algebra. Pp 87 – 89.
Otto Martin Karl Dörge (1899 - 1975 ) German Mathematician , main field: Algebra.
1.März: Fraenkel: Über die Ordnungsfähigkeit beliebiger Mengen. Pp. 90 – 91.
Abraham Halevi (Adolf) Fraenkel (1891 – 1965) ), known as Abraham Fraenkel, Israeli mathematician born in Germany. He was an early Zionist and the first Dean of Mathematics at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. He is known for his contributions to axiomatic set theory, especially his addition to Ernst Zermelo's axioms which resulted in Zermelo–Fraenkel axioms. Fraenkel studied mathematics at the University of Munich, University of Berlin, University of Marburg and University of Breslau; after graduating, he lectured at the University of Marburg from 1916, and was promoted to professor in 1922. After leaving Marburg in 1928, Fraenkel taught at the University of Kiel for a year. He then made the fateful choice of accepting a position at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, which had been founded four years earlier, where he spent the rest of his career. He became the first Dean of the Faculty of Mathematics, and for a while served as Rector of the University. Fraenkel was a fervent Zionist and as such was a member of Jewish National Council and the Jewish Assembly of Representatives under the British mandate. He also belonged to the Mizrachi religious wing of Zionism, which promoted Jewish religious education and schools, and which advocated giving the Chief Rabbinate authority over marriage and divorce. Fraenkel's early work was on Kurt Hensel's p-adic numbers and on the theory of rings. He is best known for his work on axiomatic set theory, publishing his first major work on the topic ("Einleitung in die Mengenlehre") in 1919. In 1922 and 1925, he published two papers that sought to improve Zermelo's axiomatic system; the result is the Zermelo–Fraenkel axioms. Fraenkel worked in set theory and foundational mathematics. Fraenkel also was interested in the history of mathematics, writing in 1920 and 1930 about Gauss' works in algebra, and he published a biography of Georg Cantor. After retiring from the Hebrew University and being succeeded by his former student Abraham Robinson, Fraenkel continued teaching at the Bar Ilan University in Ramat Gan .
22. März: G. Pólya: Über die Funktionalgleichung der Exponentialfunktion im Matrizenkalkül. Pp. 96 – 99.
22. März . I. Schur: Über die stetigen Darstellungen der allgemeinen linearen Gruppen. Pp 100 – 124.
19. April: Max Rubner: Über die physiologische Bedeutung wichtiger Bestandteile der Vegetabilien mit besonderer Berücksichtigung des Lignins. Pp. 127 – 145.
3. Mai: Karl Reinhardt: Zur Zerlegung der euklidischen Räume in kongruente Polytope. Pp. 150 – 155.
16. Mai: Max Rubner: Die Welternährung in Vergangenheit, Gegenwart und Zukunft. Pp. 159 – 183.
24. Mai: H. Ludendorff: Über die Abhängigkeit der Form der Sonnenkorona von der Sonnenflecken-häufigkeit. Pp 185 - 214. With numerous tables
7. Juni: A. Einstein: Riemann-Geometrie mit Aufrechterhaltung des Begriffes des Fernparallelis-mus. Pp. 217 – 221.
14. Juni: A. Einstein: Neue Möglichkeit für Eine Einheitliche Feldtheorie von Gravitation und Elektrizität. Pp 224 – 227.
In 1928, Einstein took a new approach to field theory, which he named “distant parallelism.” “By early 1929, he had solved the main problems involved in writing down field equations for his unified theory. On the day of official publication of the third of a formidably technical series of nine articles on the theory… excited headlines appeared in foreign newspapers throughout the world… In this frenzied, unscientific atmosphere, Einstein’s new theory was hailed in the press as an outstanding scientific advance” (Hoffman, 225-6). In his general theory of relativity, Einstein had created a concept called “space-time,” essentially a representation of the gravitational field. According to his theory, that field could then be acted upon by the electromagnetic field’s contribution to the stress tensor, causing curvature. In turn, space-time could also be viewed as essentially incorporating the effects of the electromagnetic field. Because the electromagnetic and gravitational fields interacted so fully in Einstein’s conception of the universe, he argued that a theory based on geometry, derived from Weyl, should be able to treat these two fields as different parts of the same basic phenomenon, an idea that had not previously been a part of standard Newtonian physics. To develop his theory, Einstein identified a third type of geometry falling between Riemannian geometry and Euclidean geometry, which would compensate for the complexity of the universe, but also accommodate certain rules associated with simpler geometry such as parallelism. The theory used a metric of signature, vanishing curvature, and non-vanishing torsion similar, but not identical, to Riemannian geometry and brought in tetrads as basic variables. Einstein’s proposed equations, based on that geometry, constituted one of his best attempts at a unified field theory, the Holy Grail of physics. He referred to his approach as “distant parallelism.” It is still regarded as one of the most innovative theories proposed in the field and has evolved to be treated as a pure theory of gravity, not unified with electromagnetism. However, Einstein, who stressed from the outset that the theory of distant parallelism was tentative, ultimately abandoned it. Over 70 years later, unified field theory remains the Holy Grail of physics... See Boni 175.
14,. Juni: G. Pólya: Beitrag zur Verallgemeinerung des Verzerrungssatzes auf mehrfach zusammenhängende Gebiete. Pp. 228 -232.
14. Juni: Eberhard Hopf:Über lineare Integralgleichungen mit positive Kern. Pp. 233 – 245
Eberhard Frederich Ferdinand Hopf (1902 - 1983,) , mathematician and astronomer, one of the founding fathers of ergodic theory and a pioneer of bifurcation theory who also made significant contributions to the subjects of partial differential equations and integral equations, fluid dynamics, and differential geometry. The Hopf maximum principle is an early result of his (1927) which is one of the most important techniques in the theory of elliptic partial differential equations. In Cambridge Hopf worked on many mathematical and astronomical subjects. His paper On time average theorem in dynamics, which appeared in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, is considered by many to be the first readable paper in modern ergodic theory
His book Mathematical problems of radiative equilibrium first appeared in 1934 and was reprinted in 1964. Another important contribution from this period is the theory of Wiener-Hopf equations, which he developed in collaboration with Norbert Wiener. By 1960, a discrete version of these equations was being extensively used in electrical engineering and geophysics, their use continuing until the present day. During this time, Hopf gained a reputation for his ability of illuminating the most complex subjects for his colleagues and even for non-specialists. Because of this talent, many discoveries and proofs of other mathematicians became easier to understand after they had been described by Hopf. Hopf was never forgiven by many people for his moving to Germany in 1936, where the Nazi party was in power. As a result, most of his work in ergodic theory and topology was neglected or even attributed to others in the years following the end of World War II. An example of this was the expulsion of Hopf's name from the discrete version of the Wiener–Hopf equations, which were frequently referred to as "Wiener filter"
28. Juni: Paul Guthnick: Über Die Berücksichtigung Der Extinktion Bei Lichtelektrischen Messungen. Pp. 251 - 257
28. Juni: Paul Guthnick: Bericht über den Stand der Vorbereitungen zur photographischen Überwachung des Himmels. Pp. 258 – 269.
19. Juli: F. Keibel: Zur Augenentwicklung der Beuteltiere. Pp. 272 – 279, 10 illustrations.
19. Juli: G. Pólya: Beitrag zur Verallgemeinerung des Verzerrungssatzes auf mehrfach zusammen-hängende Gebiete.
( Zweite Mitteilung )pp. 280 – 282.
19. Juli: E. Kamke: Verallgemeinerungen des Jordanschen Kurvensatzes und stetige Winkelfunktionen. Pp. 283 - 299
Erich Kamke (1890 –1961) , German mathematician, who specialized in the theory of differential equations. Also, his book on set theory became a standard introduction to the field. Kamke studied mathematics and physics from 1909 at the University of Giessen and the University of Göttingen. He was a volunteer in the signals force in World War I. In 1919, he married Dora Heimowitch, who was the daughter of a Jewish businessman. He earned his doctorate in 1919 at the University of Göttingen under Edmund Landau with thesis Verallgemeinerungen des Waring-Hilbertschen Satzes (Generalizations of the Waring-Hilbert theorem). While teaching between 1920 and 1926, Kamke earned his habilitation at the University of Münster in 1922. He was appointed as a professor at the University of Tübingen in 1926. Because of his marriage and his opposition to National Socialism, he was denounced by fellow mathematician Erich Schönhardt and eventually forced to retire in 1937. Following World War II, he was reappointed as a professor at the University of Tübingen, and was instrumental in the organisation of a mathematical congress in Tübingen in autumn 1946, the first scientific congress in Germany after the war. In 1948, he re-established the German Mathematical Society, and was the chairman until 1952, when he became vice-president of the International Mathematical Union, which he remained until 1954.
26. Juli: H. von Ficker:Bemerkungen über die meteorologischen Verhältnisse Teneriffas. Pp. 303 - 316
26. Juli: G. Haberlandt:Zur Entwicklungsphysiologie des Periderms. Pp 317 - 338. 16 figures.
26. Juli: E. Landau: Der PICARD-SCHOTTKYsche Satz und die BLOCHsche Konstante. Pp. 339 – 344.
26. Juli: Paul Koebe: RIEMANNsche Mannigfaltigkeiten und nichteuklidische Raumformen. ( Zweite Mitteilung: Allgemeines und niedere Raumformen ) pp. 345 - 384
26. Juli: Paul Koebe: Riemannsche Mannigfaltigkeiten Und Nichteuklidische Raumformen. ( Dritte Mitteilung. Elementarsynthese aller Hyperbolischen Raumformen; besondere Behandlung einiger wichtigen Typen; Elementarmodelle und Konformmodelle ) pp. 385 - 442
26. Juli: R. Fick: Beobachtungen am Orangkehlsack. Pp. 445 – 447, and 9 photographs on 3 folding plates 18. Oktober: G. Haberlandt: Die Lage des Zellkerns in der Eizelle der Angiospermen und ihre physiolo-gische Bedeutung. Pp 450 - 456, 4 illustrations.
1. November: K.A. Hofmann: Nityrit-Nitratbildung aus Ammoniak und Sauerstoff an alkalischen Oberflächen. Pp. 461 – 465.
Karl Andreas Hofmann (1870 – 1940) , German inorganic chemist. He is best known for his discovery of a family of clathrates which consist of a 2-D metal cyanide sheet, with every second metal also bound axially to two other ligands. These materials have been named 'Hofmann clathrates' in his honour. Hofman’s book “Anorganische Chemie” had 78 editions published between 1921 and 1978 in German and other languages and is held by 483 WorldCat member libraries worldwide. He discovered the prototype Ni(CN)2-NH3-C6H6, by chance, in 1897.
18. Oktober: R. Weitzenböck: Differentialinvariaten in der Einsteinschen Theorie des Fernparallelismus. Pp 466 – 474.
Roland Weitzenböck (1885 –1955) , Austrian mathematician working on differential geometry who introduced the Weitzenböck connection. Professor of mathematics at the University of Amsterdam from 1921 at the initiative of Brouwer, after Hermann Weyl had turned down Brouwer’s offer. Born in Kremsmünster, Austria-Hungary. He studied from 1902 to 1904 at the Technical Military Academy Mödling (now HTL Vienna) and was a captain in the Austrian army. He then studied at the University of Vienna, where he graduated in 1910 with the dissertation Zum System von 3 Strahlen-komplexen im 4-dimensionalen Raum (The system of 3-rays complexes in 4-dimensional space). After further studies at Bonn and Göttingen, he became professor at the University of Graz in 1912. After Army service in World War I, he became Professor of Mathematics at the Karl-Ferdinand University in Prague in 1918. In 1923 Weitzenböck took a position of professor of mathematics at the University of Amsterdam, where he stayed until 1945. He settled in Blaricum, where he become a fully accepted member of the community.
He was a man of few words, without observable political views. Appearances are often, however, deceptive, and in this case the solid imperturbable exterior hid a considerable amount of frustration resulting from the disastrous course of the First World War. As so many German and Austrian ex-service men, Weitzenböck became a hard-core revanchist, and an implacable enemy of France. But whereas Brouwer actively campaigned for the rehabilitation of German scientists, Weitzenböck refrained from political activity. However, after the ‘Anschluss’ of Austria in 1938, he started to vent his approval of Hitler’s policies in private conversations. In 1923 Weitzenböck published a modern monograph on the theory of invariants on manifolds that included tensor calculus. In the Preface of this monograph one can read an offensive acrostic. One finds that the first letter of the first word in the first 21 sentences spell out: NIEDER MIT DEN FRANZOSEN (down with the French).
He also published papers on torsion. In fact, in his paper "Differential Invariants in Einstein’s Theory of Tele-parallelism" Weitzenböck had given a supposedly complete bibliography of papers on torsion without mentioning Élie Cartan. Weitzenböck died in Zelhem, Netherlands in 1955. His doctoral students include G. F. C. Griss, Daniel Rutherford and Max Euwe.
8. November: G. Szegö: Verallgemeinerung des ersten Bieberbachschen Flächensatzes auf mehrfach zusammenhängende Gebiete. Pp 477 – 481
8. November: J.G. Hagen: die Geschichte des Nebels >> Barnard 86 << pp. 482 – 485.
Johann (John) Georg Hagen (1847 - 1930), Austrian Jesuit priest and astronomer. Naturalized American citizen he was called to Rome by Pope Pius IX in 1906 to be the first Jesuit director of the new Vatican Observatory. Johann Georg Hagen was born in Bregenz, Austria. He was the son of a school teacher. He studied mathematics and astronomy at the University of Bonn and the University of Münster. On July 4, 1872, Otto von Bismarck, chancellor of Germany, expelled the Jesuits from the German Empire. Johann left for England where he was eventually ordained into the priesthood. In June 1880, he left England for the United States where he began teaching at the Sacred Heart College in Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin. There he cultivated his interest in astronomy and built a small observatory for making astronomical observations. In Wisconsin, he became a naturalized citizen. He was called to serve as the Director of the Georgetown University Observatory in 1888. There he continued his research and published numerous articles and texts. In mathematics, the Rothe–Hagen identity is named after him; it appears in his three-volume 1891 publication, Synopsis of Higher Mathematics. In 1906, John was called by Pope Pius X to take charge of the Vatican Observatory in Rome. He died in Rome in 1930. The crater Hagen on the Moon is named after him.
Father Johann Georg Hagen
22. November: Max Bodenstein: Kettenreaktionen. Pp. 490 – 497.
29. November: F. Haber und H.-D. Graf von Schweinitz: Über Zündung des Knallgases durch Wasserstoffatome. Pp. 4 99 – 506.
Fritz Haber (1868 – 1934) , German chemist of Jewish origin, who received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1918 for his development for synthesizing ammonia, important for fertilizers and explosives. The food production for half the world's current population depends on this method for producing fertilizer. Haber, along with Max Born, proposed the Born–Haber cycle as a method for evaluating the lattice energy of an ionic solid. He has also been described as the "father of chemical warfare" for his work developing and deploying chlorine and other poisonous gases during World War I. He was awarded the 1918 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for this work (he actually received the award in 1919). Haber played a major role in the development of chemical warfare in World War I. Part of this work included the development of gas masks with adsorbent filters. In addition to leading the teams developing chlorine gas and other deadly gases for use in trench warfare, Haber was on hand personally to aid in its release despite its proscription by the Hague Convention of 1907 (to which Germany was a signatory) . Future Nobel laureates James Franck, Gustav Hertz, and Otto Hahn served as gas troops in Haber's unit. Gas warfare in World War I was, in a sense, the war of the chemists, with Haber pitted against French Nobel laureate chemist Victor Grignard. Regarding war and peace, Haber once said, "During peace time a scientist belongs to the World, but during war time he belongs to his country." This was an example of the ethical dilemmas facing chemists at that time. Haber was a patriotic German who was proud of his service during World War I, for which he was decorated. He was even given the rank of captain by the Kaiser, rare for a scientist too old to enlist in military service.
I n his studies of the effects of poison gas, Haber noted that exposure to a low concentration of a poisonous gas for a long time often had the same effect (death) as exposure to a high concentration for a short time. He formulated a simple mathematical relationship between the gas concentration and the necessary exposure time. This relationship became known as Haber's rule. Haber defended gas warfare against accusations that it was inhumane, saying that death was death, by whatever means it was inflicted. During the 1920s, scientists working at his institute developed the cyanide gas formulation Zyklon A, which was used as an insecticide, especially as a fumigant in grain stores. In the 1920s, Haber searched exhaustively for a method to extract gold from sea water, and published a number of scientific papers on the subject. After years of research, he concluded that the concentration of gold dissolved in sea water was much lower than those reported by earlier researchers, and that gold extraction from sea water was uneconomic. Haber's genius was recognized by the Nazis, who offered him special funding to continue his research on weapons As a result of fellow Jewish scientists having already been prohibited from working in that field, he left Germany in 1933. He moved to Cambridge, England, along with his assistant J J Weiss, for a few months, during which time Ernest Rutherford pointedly refused to shake hands with him, due to his involvement in poison gas warfare. Haber was offered by Chaim Weizmann the position of director at the Sieff Research Institute (now the Weizmann Institute) in Rehovot, in Mandate Palestine, and accepted it. He started his voyage to what is today Israel in January 1934, after recovering from a heart attack. His ill health overpowered him and on 29 January 1934, at the age of 65, he died of heart failure in a Basel hotel,
13. Dezember: L. Bieberbach und I. Schur: Über die MINKOWSKische Reduktionstheorie der positiven quadratischen formen. Pp. 510 – 535.
13. Dezember: F. Paschen: Das erste Funkenspektrum des Quecksilbers Hg II. Pp. 536 – 546.
10. Januar: Albert Einstein: Zur einheitlichen Feldtheorie. Pp. 2 -7
In 1928 Einstein embarked on a new approach to a unified field theory... involving what he called 'distant parallelism'... By early 1929 he had solved the main problems involved in writing down field equations for his unified field theory. On the day of official publication of the third of a formidably technical series of nine articles on the theory... excited headlines appeared in foreign newspapers throughout the world... In this frenzied, unscientific atmosphere, Einstein's new theory was hailed in the press as an outstanding scientific advance. Yet Einstein had stated in his article that this was still tentative; and soon he found he had to abandon it" (Hoffmann/Dukas, ''Albert Einstein: Creator and Rebel'' (1972) pp. 225- A translation by L. L. Whyte appeared in the (London) Times of Feb 4, 1929. It was quoted in full Observatory, Vol. 52, under the title "New Field Theory" pp. 82-87 and (1930) pp. 11-118. Sci. Abstr. 1930, 3653. Phys. Ber. 1930, 1821. Einstein's manuscript for this paper is in the Olin Library, Wesleyan University.
17. Januar: Max Planck: Über die Potentialdifferenz verdünnter Lösungen (zweite Mitteilung) pp. 9 – 11.
31. Januar: Wilhelm Ostwald: Grundsätzliches zur messenden Farbenlehre.pp. 14 – 26.
OSTWALD, FRIEDRICH WILHELM (1853 - 1932) Together with van’t Hoff and Arrhenius, Ostwald established physical chemistry as a recognized and independent professional discipline and was its most important spokesman and organizer. His early reputation was based upon investigations into the fundamental principles governing chemical equilibrium and reactivity. A skillful experimentalist, he continued to give chemical affinity a central position in his research on electrolytic dissociation, electrical conductivity, mass action, catalysis, and reaction velocity. Ostwald received the Nobel Prize in chemistry in 1909 for his work in physical chemistry, and especially in recognition of his studies on catalysis.
31. Januar: R. Hesse: Die Stufenleiter der Organisationshöhe der Tiere. Pp 27 – 36.
Richard Hesse (1868-1944), professor of zoology at Berlin (1926—‘35), retired against his will under Hitler.:
7. Februar: C. Carathéodory: Über die Winkelderivierten von beschränkten analytischen Funktionen. Pp. 39 – 54.
Constantin Carathéodory (or Constantine Karatheodori; Greek: ???????????? ???????????; 1873 – y 1950) ,Greek mathematician who spent most of his professional career in Germany. He made significant contributions to the theory of functions of a real variable, the calculus of variations, and measure theory. His work also includes important results in conformal representations and in the theory of boundary correspondence. In 1909, Carathéodory pioneered the Axiomatic Formulation of Thermodynamics along a purely geometrical approach.
7. Februar: G. Pólya: Beitrag zur Verallgemeinerung des Verzerrungssatzes auf mehrfach zusammenhängende Gebiete. (Dritte Mitteilung) pp. 55 – 62.
14. Februar: H. Ludendorff: die Untersuchungen über die ? Cephei-Sterne. Pp. 64 – 95.
14. Februar: A. Marx: Zwei Sätze über schlichtre Funktionen. Pp. 96 – 100.
28. Februar: K.F. Bonhoeffer & P. Harteck: Experimente über Para- und Orthowasserstoff. Pp. 103 – 108.
Paul Karl Maria Harteck (1902–1985) , German physical chemist. In 1933, Harteck went to do research with Ernest Rutherford at the University of Cambridge. Upon his return from England in 1934, he became an ordinarius professor and director of the physical chemistry department at the University of Hamburg.He was arrested by the allied British and American Armed Forces and incarcerated at Farm Hall for six months in 1945 under Operation Epsilon. After his release, he returned to academia. Early in 1939 the German Army's ordinance department, Heereswaffenamt (HWA) began to recieve reports from it's consultant explosives chemist Dr Paul Harteck about the explosives potential of nuclear weapons. Harteck's advice to HWA was also echoed by Dr Nikolaus Reihl, a former student of Otto Hahn and Lise Meitner. Reihl worked for Auer Gesselschaft, a company trading in rare and unusual metals such as Uranium. Dr Kurt Diebner also wrote to the millitary pointing out the weapons potential of Atomic energy. At first the millitary appeared disinterested, but that all changed in June 1939 when Dr Seigfried Flugge wrote an article in Die Naturwissenschaften entitled "Can the energy content of the nuclei be technically viable?" In his article Flugge spelled out exactly how much explosive power could be released by splitting the atom. A second "uranium club” or Uranverin was founded under leadership of Heereswaffenamt HWA (Army Ordnance) in September 1939. Formally this known as Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Kernphysik. At that time, Army Ordnance included weaponry research departments for various scientific disciplines, staffed by competent scientists. KWG scientists who became involved in the second Uranverin were Horst Korsching, Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker and otehrs
28. Februar: Karl Willy Wagner: Plan einer Fernsprechkabelverbindung zwischen Europa und Amerika. Pp 109 - 121
Karl Willy Wagner (1883–1953) was a German pioneer in the theory of electronic filters. He is noted by Hendrik Bode as being one of two Germans whose important contributions were slow to diffuse outside Germany because of the accidental intervention of World Wars I and II. ” The other German being referred to is Wilhelm Cauer. Wagner was the second referee on Cauer's milestone 1926 thesis but Wagner fell out with Cauer in 1942 after he refused to support Wagner's research proposals with the German Society of Electrical Engineers (Verband der Elektrotechnik - the VDE ) Wagner was removed from office in 1936 because he refused to dismiss his Jewish employees.
14. März: I. Schur: Einige sätze über Primzahlen mit Anwendungen auf Irreduzibilitätsfragen. I. Pp. 125 -136.
14. März: T. Levi-Civita: Vereinfachte Herstellung d. Einsteinschen einheitlichen Feldgleichungen. Pp. 137 – 153.
Tullio Levi-Civita, FRS ( 1873 – 1941, Italian mathematician, most famous for his work on absolute differential calculus (tensor calculus) and its applications to the theory of relativity, but who also made significant contributions in other areas. He was a pupil of Gregorio Ricci-Curbastro, the inventor of tensor calculus. His work included foundational papers in both pure and applied mathematics, celestial mechanics (notably on the three-body problem), analytic mechanics (the Levi-Civita separability conditions in the Hamilton–Jacobi equation) and hydrodynamics. His textbook on tensor calculus, The Absolute Differential Calculus (originally a set of lecture notes in Italian co-authored with Ricci-Curbastro), remains one of the standard texts more than a century after its first publication, with several translations available. In 1936, receiving an invitation from Einstein, Levi-Civita traveled to Princeton, United States and lived there with him for a year. But when the risk of war in Europe again rose, he returned to Italy. Like Vito Volterra, being Jewish and an anti-fascist, he was expelled from the Academy in his country.The 1938 race laws enacted by the Italian Fascist government deprived Levi-Civita of his professorship and of his membership of all scientific societies. Isolated from the scientific world, he died in his apartment in Rome in 1941.
21. März: Albert Einstein: Einheitliche Feldtheorie und HAMILTONsches Prinzip. Pp. 156 - 159
Part of Einstein's final efforts on a unified field theory in which he "proposed a set of field equations, but added that 'further investigations will have to show whether [these] will give an interpretation of the physical qualities of space.'" Abraham Pais, 'Subtle is the Lord,' p. 346. Printing and the mind of man 416; Weil #166; Schilpp-Shields 2
11. April: F. Haber: Über die Rolle der Elektrizitätsträger bei der Explosion brennbarer Gase im Gemische mit Luft. Pp. 162 – 170
11. April: George D. Birkhoff (Cambridge (Mass.) : Divergente Reihen und singular Punkte gewöhnlicher Differential-gleichungen. Pp. 171 – 183 Vorgelegt von Herrn Bieberbach am 31. Januar.
George David Birkhoff (1884 –1944) , American mathematician, He was one of the most important leaders in American mathematics in his generation, and during his prime he was considered by many to be the preeminent American mathematician. Birkhoff's most durable result has been his 1931 discovery of what is now called the ergodic theorem. Combining insights from physics on the ergodic hypothesis with measure theory, this theorem solved, at least in principle, a fundamental problem of statistical mechanics. The ergodic theorem has also had repercussions for dynamics, probability theory, group theory, and functional analysis. He also worked on number theory, the Riemann–Hilbert problem, and the four colour problem. He proposed an axiomatization of Euclidean geometry different from Hilbert's (see Birkhoff's axioms); this work culminated in his text Basic Geometry (1941). In his later years, Birkhoff published two curious works. His 1933 Aesthetic Measure proposed a mathematical theory of aesthetics. While writing this book, he spent a year studying the art, music and poetry of various cultures around the world. His 1938 Electricity as a Fluid combined his ideas on philosophy and science. His 1943 theory of gravitation is also puzzling, since Birkhoff knew (but didn't seem to mind) that his theory allows as sources only matter which is a perfect fluid in which the speed of sound must equal the speed of light . Albert Einstein and Norbert Wiener, among others, accused Birkhoff of advocating anti-Semitic hiring practices. During the 1930s, when many Jewish mathematicians fled Europe and tried to obtain jobs in the USA, Birkhoff is alleged to have influenced the hiring process at American institutions to exclude Jews. While Birkhoff may have held anti-Semitic views, it was also the case that he had always been outspoken in his promotion of American mathematics and mathematicians. It has been argued that Birkhoff's actions were in good part motivated by a desire to assure jobs for home-grown American mathematicians. Saunders Mac Lane (1994), a close friend and collaborator of Birkhoff's son, argued that any anti-Semitic tendencies Birkhoff may have had were not unusual for his time.
18. April: Albrecht Penck: Geomorphologische Probleme im Fernen Westen Nordamerikas. Pp. 187 – 218.
18. April: Guido Hoheisel: Über das Verhalten des reziproken Wertes der RIEMANNschen Funktion. Pp. 219 -223.
16. Mai: M. v. Laue: Über eine röntgenographische Methode, Größe und Form ultramikroskopische krystalliner Teilchen zu bestimmen. Pp. 227 - 228
16. Mai: H. Ludendorff: Über den sogenannten 61 Cygni-Sternstrom. Pp. 229 -239.
6. Juni: H. Zimmermann: Besonderes vom Knicken. Pp. 245 – 251
20. Juni: E. Study: die angeblichen Antinomien der Mengenlehre. Pp. 255 – 267.
11. Juli: E. Landau: Bemerkungen zu einer Arbeit von Hrn. Hoheisel über die Zetafunktion. Pp. 271 -275.
11. Juli: Alexander Ostrowski: Über Schwankungen analytischer funktionen, die gegebene Werte nicht annehmen. Pp. 276 -287.
18. Juli: H. von Ficker: Der Sturm in Norddeutschland am 4. Juli 1928. Pp. 290 – 326, 23 Illustrations/graphs.
18. Juli: G. Haberlandt: Über Regenerationsvorgänge bei Bryopsis und Codium. Pp. 327 – 340, 5 illustrations.
18. Juli: Adresse an Hrn. Max Planck zum fünfzugjährigfen Doktorjubiläum am 28. Juni 1929. Pp. 341 – 342.
18. Juli: Max Rubner: Alte und neue Irrwege auf dem Gebiete der Volksernährung. Pp 343 – 363.
25. Juli: Max Bodenstein: Der durch Chlor katalysierte Zerfall des Ozons. Pp. 367 – 369.
25. Juli: I. Schur: einige Sätze über Primzahlen mit Anwendungen auf Irreduzibilitätsfragen II. Pp. 370 – 391.
25. Juli: Heinrich Liermann: Elementarer Beweis des FENCHELschen Satzes über die Krümmung geschlossener Raumkurven. Pp. 392 – 393.
25. Juli: Theodor Vahlen: Zur Partition der Zahlen. Pp 394 – 400
Karl Theodor Vahlen , ( 1869 – 1945 ) Austrian-born mathematician , ardent supporter of the Nazi Party. He was a member of both the SA and SS. In February 1937 the scientific class nominated the mathematician Theodor Vahlen and the race hygienist Eugen Fischer for election to the academy. Bieberbach and Planck were among the sponsors of both proposals. Although Fischer’s science, anthropology, and eugenics, were more relevant to National Socialist science policy, Vahlen had extremely impressive political credentials for the Third Reich, even better than Philipp Lenard or Johannes Stark. Vahlen was born in 1869, was a decorated veteran of World War I, and had been a member of the NSDAP from the very beginning. He served as regional leader for Pomerania and member of parliament during the twenties, joined the Storm troopers in 1933, and switched over to the SS in 1936. Vahlen became full professor of mathematics at the University of Greifswald before World War I and university rector in 1924. Moreover, Vahlen was one of the few professors in the Weimar Republic to embrace early and openly Hitler’s movement. In 1924 Vahlen incited a crowd at a rally against the republic and took down the Prussian and Reich flags from the University flagpoles. The republican government Immediately placed Vahlen on leave and eventually fired him without a pension for political abuse of his function.
Karl Theodor Vahlen
25. Juli: Eberhard Hopf: Über die geschlossenen Bahnen in der Mondtheorie. Pp. 401 – 412
Hopf, Eberhard, 1902-1983. Austrian-american phycisist ,mathematician and astronomer, one of the founding fathers of ergodic theory and a pioneer of bifurcation theory who also made significant contributions to the subjects of partial differential equations and integral equations, fluid dynamics, and differential geometry. The Hopf maximum principle is an early result of his (1927) which is one of the most important techniques in the theory of elliptic partial differential equations.
25. Juli: Paul Koebe: Riemannsche Mannigfaltigkeiten Und Nichteuklidische Raumformen.(Vierte Mitteilung: Verlauf geodätischer Linien. Pp., 414 – 457. Illustrated with line drawingsd
25. Juli: R.Fick: Über d. Arbeitsleistung d. Schultergelenkmuskeln. Pp. 458 – 483, one linedrawing several tables and 8 plates of which one folding
17. Oktober: A. Johnsen: Über den Beta-Salmiak und verwandte Kristallarten. Pp. 492 - 505, one line drawing in the text and one platre
Arrien Johnsen , 1877 – 1934, German mineralogist and crystallographer
24. Oktober: K[arl[.A[ndreas]. Hofmann: Beiträge zur kenntnis des Schwarzpulvers. Pp. 509 – 515
24. Oktober: Martin Schmidt: Neue Funde in der iberisch-balearischen Trias. Pp. 516 – 523.
24. Oktober: Guido Hoheisel: Zur Theorie der komplexen Zahlen. Pp. 524 – 531.
31. Oktober: Otto Hahn: Die radioaktiven Substanzen im Dienste chemischer u. physikalisch-chemischer Forschung. Pp 535 – 542, graphs and 2 illustrations
31. Oktober: Paul Krüger: Über die Verdauungsfermente der Wirbellosen. Pp. 548 -564, graphs.
Wirbellosen = Invertebrates , animals that neither possess nor develop a vertebral column, derived from the notochord. This includes all animals apart from the subphylum Vertebrata.
31. Oktober: Harald Bohr: Über transzendente Funktionen von einem besonderen Typus. (Beispiel einer allgemeinen Konstruktionsmetode)
pp. 565 – 571
Harald Bohr (1887-1951), the younger brother of the physicist Niels Bohr, studied at the University of Copenhagen 1904-10 and got his doctoral degree here in February 1910. His dissertation was on Dirichlet series. During the period 1910-15 he was a docent at the university and during 1915-30 he was professor in mathematics at the Polytechnics in Copenhagen. From 1930 until his death he was professor in mathematics at the University of Copenhagen. In the period until the 1920s his research was in Dirichlet series and analytic number theory. However, he is best known for his creation of the theory of almost periodic functions in the middle of the 1920s. This theory made him international known. Bohr was the most prominent Danish mathematician in the first half of the 20th century. He also became known internationally for his help to mathematicians, who had to leave Germany after the Nazis came to power in 1933 and for his importance in the international mathematical community. He had numerous international contacts and collaborated with several foreign mathematicians, especially Edmund Landau. His influence on mathematics in Denmark was also significant, through the textbook system Lærebog i Matematisk Analyse I-IV (known as "Bohr and Mollerup") written jointly with Mollerup, and as head of the first mathematics institute inaugurated in 1934. In Denmark he collaborated mainly with Børge Jessen and Erling Følner.
Harald and Niels Bohr
. November : C. Wirtz: [1876-1939 ] Experimentelles zur Photometrie des Rotationsellipsoids. Pp. 574 – 591. Graphs.
7. November: Egon Ullrich: Über die Ableitung einer meromorphen Funktion. Pp. 592 – 608.
21. November: Ludwig Bieberbach: Über die topologischen Typen der offenen Enklidischen Raumformen. Pp. 612 – 619
21. November: Ludwig Bieberbach: Über schlichte Abbildungen des Einheitskreises durch meromorphen Funktionen. Pp. 620 - 623
21. November: E. Warburg: Über die Photolyse der Lösungen von Schwefelwasserstoff in Hexan und in Wasser. Pp. 624-625
Emil Gabriel Warburg (1846 –1931), German physicist who during his career was professor of physics at the Universities of Strassburg, Freiburg and Berlin. He was president of the Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft 1899-1905. He was a friend of Albert Einstein. Among his students were James Franck (Nobel prize for physics 1925), Eduard Grüneisen, Robert Pohl, Erich Regener and Hans von Euler-Chelpin (Nobel prize for chemistry 1929). He was a member of the Warburg family. He carried out research in the areas of kinetic theory of gases, electrical conductivity, gas discharges, heat radiation, ferromagnetism and photochemistry. He was the father of Otto Heinrich Warburg.
21. November: Richard Brauer: Die stetigen Darstellungen der komplexen orthogonalen Gruppe. Pp. 626 – 638
21. November M.J. Belinfante: Zur intuitionistischen Theorie der Unendlichen , pp 639 – 640
Maurits Joost Belinfante, Amsterdam 1896 – Auschwitz 1944
28. November: F.Paschen Lymans Heliumlinien. Pp 662 – 666.
5. Dezember: E. Schrödinger: Verwaschene Eigenwertspektra. Pp. 668 – 682.
Erwin Rudolf Josef Alexander Schrödinger (1887 - 1961), sometimes written as Erwin Schrodinger or Erwin Schroedinger, Nobel Prize-winning Austrian physicist who developed a number of fundamental results in the field of quantum theory, which formed the basis of wave mechanics: he formulated the wave equation (stationary and time-dependent Schrödinger equation) and revealed the identity of his development of the formalism and matrix mechanics. Schrödinger proposed an original interpretation of the physical meaning of the wave function. In addition, he was the author of many works in various fields of physics: statistical mechanics and thermodynamics, physics of dielectrics, colour theory, electrodynamics, general relativity, and cosmology, and he made several attempts to construct a unified field theory. In his book What Is Life? Schrödinger addressed the problems of genetics, looking at the phenomenon of life from the point of view of physics. He paid great attention to the philosophical aspects of science, ancient and oriental philosophical concepts, ethics, and religion. He also wrote on philosophy and theoretical biology. He is also known for his "Schrödinger's cat" thought-experiment.
Index of names and subjects
9. Januar: Paul Guthnick: Der Einprismensternspektrograph und das lichtlektrische Sternphotometer am 125 cm-Reflektor der Sternwarte Berlin-Babelsberg. Pp. 2 - 10, 2 photographs.
9. Januar: Paul Guthnick: Plan der Einrichtung einer deutschen Sternwarte in Windhuk. Pp 14 - 13
9 Januar: Albert Einstein: Die Kompatabilität der Feldgleichungen in der einheitlichen Feldtheorie. Pp 18 -23.
16. Januar: M[ax]. von Laue: zur Elektrostatik der Raumgitter.pp. 26 -41
16. Januar: A[rend] . Heyting: Die formalen Regeln der intuitionistischen Logik.I Pp. 42 - 56
16. Januar: A[rend] . Heyting: Die formalen Regeln der intuitionistischen Mathematik II Einleitung. Pp 57 – 71.
Arend Heyting (1898 –1980) , Dutch mathematician and logician. He was a student of Luitzen Egbertus Jan Brouwer at the University of Amsterdam, and did much to put intuitionistic logic on a footing where it could become part of mathematical logic. Heyting gave the first formal development of intuitionistic logic in order to codify Brouwer's way of doing mathematics. The inclusion of Brouwer's name in the Brouwer–Heyting–Kolmogorov interpretation is largely honorific, as Brouwer was opposed in principle to the formalisation of certain intuitionistic principles (and went as far as calling Heyting's work a "sterile exercise").In 1942 he became member of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences.
16. Januar: Guido Hoheisel: Nullstellenanzahl und Mittelwerte der Zetafunktion. Pp 72 - 82.
13. Februar: H. Ludendorff: Über die Entstehung der Tzolkin-Periode im Kalender der Maya. Pp 87 – 107, illustrations, graph.
20. Februar: Albert Einstein und W[alter]. Mayer: Zwei Strenge Statische Losungen der Feldgleichungen der Einheitlichen Feldtheorie. Pp. 110 – 120
Walther Mayer (1887-1948) , Austrian mathematician, born 1887 in Graz, Austria. With Leopold Vietoris he is the namesake of the Mayer–Vietoris sequence in topology. He served as an assistant to Albert Einstein, and was nicknamed "Einstein's calculator". More and more frequently Einstein chose his assistants from mathematicians. One of them at that time was Professor Walter Mayer, a small round individual who, at first sight, seemed crushed beneath the personality of Einstein. Einstein's family called him Mayerle and this Swabian diminutive suited him to perfection. But in Mayer's self-effacement there was more affection than respect. He gently contradicted Einstein, interrupted him when necessary, followed up an argument and smiled a little mysteriously, his head on one side, as he watched the figures drawn up in front of him. "It is he who produced all my calculations; his skill is fantastic, you know", Einstein used to say. In October 1933 Mayer followed Einstein in his American exile.
Mayer is third from the left
6. März: E[duard]. Rembs: Unverbiegbare offene Flächen. Pp. 123 – 133.
Eduard Rembs (1890 - 1964 ) , German mathematician .
13. März: Albrecht Penck: Potentielle und effective Wasserkräfte des Landes. Pp 135 - 141. One map.
20. März: Gustav Doetsch: Sätze von Tauberschen Charakter im Gebiet der Laplace- und Stieltjes-Transformation. Pp. 144 – 157.
Dr. Gustav Doetsch (1892 – 1977) , German mathematician, aviation researcher, decorated war veteran, and Nazi supporter. With the outbreak of World War I, his studies were interrupted when he joined the army in October 1914. Serving in the infantry for two years, in 1916 he moved to the air force where he served as an aerial observer. In 1918 he was discharged, having received the Iron Cross and position of second-lieutenant. Following World War One, Doetsch adopted pacifist beliefs, joining Peace Association of German Catholics from 1926 to 1928 and the German Peace Society from 1926 to 1930. However, after the National Socialists assumed power in 1933, he was described as having becoming "110% Nazi." The policies of the Nazis began to have an effect on academia in Germany, where Jewish intellectuals were targeted for dismissal. Doetsch approved of the dismissal of colleagues he had at one time collaborated with, Edmund Landau, who was his professor when he earned his doctorate at Göttingen, and Felix Bernstein, who he has spent much time with researching the Laplace transform. Doetsch advocated an "appropriate and purely Aryan representation of Germans" on the editorial board of Compositio, a magazine for which he had been a board member at one time along with Reinhold Baer, Ludwig Bieberbach, Georg Feigl, Heinz Hopf, Alfred Loewy, Richard von Mises, John von Neumann, Wilhelm Suss, and Gábor Szeg?. With the outbreak of World War Two, Doetsch returned to the Luftwaffe as a captain in 1939, serving in the Reichsluftfahrtministerium.] There he was in a leadership role and coordinated mathematical war research. In 1941 he was given the task of creating an institute to apply to mathematics to economic and military matters in the Third Reich. After the war he was suspended from his position at Freiburg,[ and denied retirement privileges in 1946. He was not reinstated to his chair position until 1951, where he would serve ten years before retiring in 1961. During this time he completed further literary works, including Handbuch der Laplacetrans-formation in 1955, Einführung in die Theorie und Anwendung der Laplacetransformation in 1958, and Anleitung zum praktischen Gebrauch der Laplacetransformation in 1961.
20. März: A. Heyting: Die formalen Regeln der intuitionistischen Mathematik III. pp. 158 – 168.
3. April. Fr. Becker: Zur Struktur des lokalen Sternsystems I: Die Spektra der Klassen A-K in der Deklination -60°. Pp 174 – 188, graphs/plates
1. Mai: A. Defant: Die Bewegungen und der thermo-haline Aufbau der Wassermassen in Meeresstraßen. pp., 191-208 (1930).
Albert Joseph Maria Defant,Austrian meteorologist and oceanographer.( 1884 – 1974), was born in Trient when this was still part of the Austrian Empire. Since 1919 this city is Trento in Italy. Albert Defant went to schools in Trient and Innsbruck and then studied mathematics, physics, and geophysics at the University of Innsbruck in Austria from 1902.He received his PhD at Innsbruck University in 1906 with a thesis on raindrop sizes. He started working at the Zentralanstalt für Meteorologie und Geodynamik (Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics) in Vienna, Austria in 1907. He obtained his Habilitation (degree permitting to teach at the university) at Vienna University in 1909 with a thesis on water level changes of Lake Garda.
1 Mai: R. Brauer und I. Schur: Zum Irreduzibilitätsbegriff in der Theorie der Gruppen linearer homogener Substitutionen. Pp 209 - 226
15. Mai: A. Defant: Bericht über die ozeanographisohcn Untersuchungen des Vermessungsschiiiß „Metoor" in der Dänemarkstraße und in der' Irrningersee . pp. 230 – 235, 3 illustrations, one in colours.
5. Juni: Max Rubner: Konstitution und Ernährung. Pp. 238 - 264.
5. Juni: H. Ludendorff: Über die Reduktion der Maya-Datierungen auf unsere Zeitrechnung.pp. 265 -278.
19. Juni: Richard Hesse: Vergang und Ereignis in der Biologie. Pp. 281 - 291
19. Juni: E. Schrödinger: Zum HEISENBERGschen Unschärfeprinzip. Pp. 296 – 303.
In quantum mechanics, the uncertainty principle, also known as Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, is any of a variety of mathematical inequalities[ asserting a fundamental limit to the precision with which certain pairs of physical properties of a particle, known as complementary variables, such as position x and momentum p, can be known simultaneously.
19. Juni: Paul Koebe: RIEMANNsche Mannigfaltigkeiten und nichteuklidische Raumformen. Fünfte Mitteilung: Uniformisable singularitätenbehaftete Raumformen. Verlauf geodätischer Linien. Quasihomotopie. Pp 304 – 364, numerous illustrations.
26. Juni: Max Planck: Über die Grenzsicht verdünnter Elektrolyte. Pp. 367 - 373. (first part) For 2nd part see 1931
26. Juni: G. Haberlandt: Das Wesen der Crataegomespili. Pp. 374 - 397, illustrated’
26. Juni: Werner Kolhörster: Das Potsdamer Höhenstrahlungslaboratorium. Pp. 395 -397.
Werner Kolhörster (1887 - 1946 ) ,German physicist. He shared the nobel-prize for physics with Eugen Goldstein in 1926. He was the co-discoverer of the cosmic rays together with Victor HESS, nobel-prize winner of 1936. The Nazi regime prevented adequate honouring
17. Juli: S[alomon]. Bochner: Über eine Klasse singulärer Integralgleichungen. Pp. 403 – 411.
Salomon Bochner (1899 –1982) , American mathematician of Austrian-Hungarian origin, known for wide-ranging work in mathematical analysis, probability theory and differential geometry. His academic career in Germany ended after the Nazis came to power in 1933, and he left for a position at Princeton University. He was a visiting scholar at the Institute for Advanced Study in 1945-48. He was appointed as Henry Burchard Fine Professor in 1959 and held this prestigious chair until he retired in 1968. Although he was seventy years old when he retired from Princeton, Bochner was appointed as Edgar Odell Lovett Professor of Mathematics at Rice University and went on to hold this chair until his death in 1982
17. Juli: Michael Sadowsky: “Ein elementarer Beweis für die Existenz eines abwickelbaren Möbiusschen
Bandes und die Zurückführung des geometrischen Problems auf ein Variationsproblem. Pp. 412 - 415.
Michael A. Sadowsky was a researcher in solid mechanics, particularly the mathematical theory of elasticity and materials science. Born in Estonia, he earned his doctorate in 1927 under the applied mathematician Georg Hamel at the Technical University of Berlin with a dissertation entitled Spatially periodic solutions in the theory of elasticity (in German). He made contributions in the use of potential functions in elasticity and force transfer mechanisms in composites. Many of his early papers were written in German and are now being translated.
30. Oktober: Otto Szász:Über einen Satz von Hardy und Littlewood. Pp.470 – 473.
Otto Szász ( 1884 – 1952 ) , Hungarian mathematician who worked on real analysis, in particular on Fourier series. He proved the Müntz–Szász theorem and introduced the Szász–Mirakyan operator. The Hungarian Mathematical and Physical Society awarded him the Julius König prize in 1939.
30. Oktober: Martin Schmidt: Weitere Studien in der iberisch-balearischen Trias. Pp. 474 – 488.
20. November: P. Guthnick: Bericht über den Fortgang der spektrographischen und lichtelektrischen Arbeiten am 125 cm-Reflektor. Pp. 495 – 496.
20. November: P.Guthnick: HD 185936. Pp 497 - 504. Illustrated.
Paul Guthnick (1879 – 1947), German astronomer. Born in Hitdorf am Rhein, he studied at the University of Bonn receiving his doctorate in 1901 under Friedrich Küstner
20. November: Paul Koebe: RIEMANNsche Mannigfaltigkeiten und nichteuklidische Raumformen. Sechste Mitteilung:Elementarsynthese der allgemeinen singularitätenbehafteten Bauformen endlicher Signatur. Pp. 505 – 541.
27. November: Wilhelm Süss; Lokale Kennzeichnung der Ellipsoide unter den Affinsphären. Pp. 544 - 546
Wilhelm Süss ( 1895 – 1958) , German mathematician. Born in Frankfurt, Germany, died in Freiburg im Breisgau. In 1936—1940, he was an editor of the journal Deutsche Mathematik. He was founder and first director of the Mathematical Research Institute of Oberwolfach.
15. November: Otto Hahn: Über die Gesetzmäßigkeiten der Verteilung kleiner Substanzmengen in auskristallisierenden Niederschlägen. Experimentell bearb. von H. Käding und R. Mumbrauer. Pp. 547 – 555.
27. November: Frank Löbell: einige Eigenschaften der Geraden in gewissen Clifford-Kleinschen Räumen
pp. 556 – 569.
Frank Richard Löbell (1893 - 1964) , German mathematician especially working in the field of geometry.
11. Dezember: F. Paschen: Eine Erweiterung der einfachen Spektra. Pp. 574 – 578.
11. Dezember: Guido Hoheisel: Primzahlprobleme in der analysis. Pp. 580 – 588.
8. Januar: Joh. Stumpf: Hochdruck Schiffsdampfmaschine. Pp. 2 - 7
Johann Stumpf of the Charlottenburg Technical College in Berlin is best known for popularising the uniflow steam engine, in the years around 1909, and his name has always been associated with it. The basic uniflow principle had been invented many years before.
8. Januar: H. Ludendorff: Die astronomische Bedeutung der Seiten 51 und 52 des Dresdener Maya-Kodex (Untersuchungen zur Astronomie der Maya, Nr. 3) pp8 – 19, one plate.
15. Januar: P. Guthnick: Strömungen in Sternatmosphären. Pp. 22 -,26.
29. Januar: H. von Ficker: Über die Entstehung lokaler Wärmegewitter. 1. Mitteilung. Pp. 28 -39.
29. Januar: H. Ludendorff: Das Mondalter in den Inschriften der Maya. (Untersuchungen zur Astronomie der Maya Nr. 4.) pp. 40 – 62. With tables.
29. Januar: E. Schrödinger: Zur Quantendynamik des Elektrons. Pp. 63 – 72.
29. Januar: Max Bodenstein: Die Oxydation von gasförmigem Acetaldehyd durch Sauerstoff als
Musterbeispiel für die Verbrennung der Kohlenwasserstoffe. Pp. 73 – 88.
12. Februar: Leo Tuwim: Richtungsmessungen der Höhenstrahlung mit einem Zählrohr. Pp 91 – 106, 2 plates.
Tuwim was one of the early scientists investigating radiation
26. Februar: Max Planck:Über die grenzschicht verdünnter Elektrolyte. (2nd part) pp. 113 -122.
26. Februar: M. von Laue: Die Lichtfortpflanzung in Raumen mit zeitlich veranderlicher Krummung nach der allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie. Pp. 123 – 131.
5. März H. Ludendorff: Die Venustafel des Dresdener Kodex .( Untersuchungen zur Astronomie der Maya, Nr. 5 ) pp. 134 – 142.
E.Schrödinger: Über die Umkehrung der Naturgeschichte. Pp. 144 - 153.
part of a letter written by Schrödinger in 1913
12. März: Karl Willy Wagner: Geräusch und Lärm. Pp. 154 – 165. Illustr.
12. März: Erwin Meyer: Grundlegende Messungen zur Schallilluation von Einfach Trennwänden. Pp. 166 – 181. 14 illustr. 2 tables.
Erwin Meyer (1899–1972) was the leading German acoustician of his time. He wrote contributions to electroacoustics, acoustic measurement techniques, architectural and underwater acoustics, and to other acoustical sub-fields. Meyer's engagement was decisive for establishing acoustical journals, he cultivated international relationships, and he educated a whole generation of outstanding acousticians. He was the founder and first director of the Third Institute of Physics at the University of Göttingen.
12. März: Ernst Zinner: Die fortschreitende Helligkeitsänderung der Cephei-Sterne. Pp. 182 -199.
Ernst Zinner (1886 - 1970) , German astronomer and noted historian of astronomy. On 23 October 1913 he rediscovered the Comet Giacobini-Zinner, which had been previously discovered by Michel Giacobini in 1900. His main work during this time was on variable stars. After working as a meteorologist during World War I, Zinner returned to Bamberg, but then moved to Munich to work in geodesy. In 1924 Zinner received the professor's title from the University of Munich. He was appointed director of Remeis-Observatory in Bamberg, Germany, in 1926 and retired in 1956. During this time his main astronomical work centered on stellar astronomy. His main speciality and interest, however, was Renaissance Astronomy and the history of astronomical instruments, an area in which he started working in 1925. His obituaries quote a total of 9000 printed pages on this subject, with the most significant ones focusing on biographies and cataloguing early astronomical works and instruments.
26. März: C.Correns: Vererbungsversuche mit buntblättrigen Sippen. VIII. Nochmals Stellaria media status albomaculatus. IX. Hypericum perforatum [ = St John's wort ] status paralbomaculatus. X. Primula malacoides forma albomarginata. XI. Coleus hybridus forma (?) albopieta. Pp. 203 – 231, 8 illustrations and some tables.
16. April: Albert Einstein: Zum Kosmologischen Problem der allgemeinen Relativitaetstheorie, pp. 235 - 237
16. April. Schrödinger: Speziella Relativitätsthjeorie und Quantenmechanik. Pp 238 – 247.
23. April: James Franck und Fritz Haber: Zur theorie der Katalyse durch Schwermetallionen in wässriger Lösung und insbesondere zur Autoxydation der Sulfitlösungen. Pp. 250 -256.
James Franck (t 1882 – 1964) was a German physicist who won the 1925 Nobel Prize for Physics with Gustav Hertz "for their discovery of the laws governing the impact of an electron upon an atom". He completed his doctorate in 1906 and his habilitation in 1911 at the Frederick William University in Berlin, where he lectured and taught until 1918, having reached the position of professor extraordinarius. He served as a volunteer in the German Army during World War I. He was seriously injured in 1917 in a gas attack and was awarded the Iron Cross 1st Class. Franck became the Head of the Physics Division of the Kaiser Wilhelm Gesellschaft for Physical Chemistry. In 1920, Franck became professor ordinarius of experimental physics and Director of the Second Institute for Experimental Physics at the University of Göttingen. While there he worked on quantum physics with Max Born, who was Director of the Institute of Theoretical Physics. His work included the Franck–Hertz experiment, an important confirmation of the Bohr model of the atom. After the NSDAP came to power in Germany in 1933, Franck resigned his post in protest against the dismissal of fellow academics. He assisted Frederick Lindemann in helping dismissed Jewish scientists find work overseas, before he left Germany in November 1933. He was the first academic to resign in protest over the Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service, which provided for the retirement or dismissal of all Jewish civil servants, along with political opponents of the government. Newspapers around the world reported it, but no government or university protested. After a year at the Niels Bohr Institute in Denmark, he moved to the United States, where he worked at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore and then the University of Chicago. During this period he became interested in photosynthesis. Franck participated in the Manhattan Project during World War II as Director of the Chemistry Division of the Metallurgical Laboratory. He was also the chairman of the Committee on Political and Social Problems regarding the atomic bomb, which is best known for the compilation of the Franck Report, which recommended that the atomic bombs not be used on the Japanese cities without warning.
23. April: Albert Einstein und W. Mayer: Systematische Untersuchung über kompatible Feldgleichungen welche in einem Riemannschen Raume mit Fern-Parallelismus gesetzt werden können pp. 257 - 265 ,
4. Juni: Max Rubner: Geschichte der Entwicklung des Energieverbrauches bei den Wirbeltieren. Pp. 272 – 316.
11.Juni: Paolo Straneo: Gleichungen zu
einer einheitlichen Feldtheorie.
Pp 319 - 325
Paolo Pietro Straneo (1874 – 1968 ),
Italian mathematical physicist.
He studied at ETH Zurich,
where he met and was a friend of
18. Juni: Alfred Brauer: Über Sequenzen von Potenzresten. Pp. 329 – 341.
18. Juni: Wilhelm Süss: Die Isoperimetrie der mehrdimensionalen Kugel. Pp 342 – 344.
18. Juni: A. Defant: Bericht über die ozeanographischen Untersuchungen des Vermessungsschiffes „Meteor" in der Dänemarkstraße und in der' Irmingersee . Zweiter Bericht. Pp. 345 – 359, 2 tables, 5 illustr.
18. Juni: Leo Tuwim: Zur Berechnung der Zählrohreffekte der Höhenstrahlung und ihrer Absorptionsgesetze bei Messungen mit einem Zählrohr . pp 360 - 373.
9. Juli: M. von Laue: Ein Satz über Eigenspannungen. Pp. 377 – 382.
Erich Schoenberg: Untersuchungen über die Atmosphäre des Planeten Venus.. pp. 383 - 416
Erich Schoenberg (1882–1965) a graduate of Tartu (Dorpat) University was born in Warsaw. He defended his PhD thesis dedicated to determination of orbits of binary stars.in Tartu. Eventually he left Estonia in 1920 for Helsinki and supervised during four years the geodetic triangulation works. In 1925 E. Schoenberg settled in Germany assuming the post of the director of Breslau Observatory and later on till the end of his life he headed München astronomical observatory
9. Juli: Arnold Scholz: Die Abgrenzungssätze für Kreiskörper und Klassenkörper. Pp 417 - 426
Arnold Scholz ( 1904 -, 1942 ) German mathematician who proved Scholz's reciprocity law and introduced the Scholz conjecture.
23. Juli: Werner Fenchel: Bemerkungen über die im Einheitskreis meromorphen schlichten Funktionen.
pp. 421 – 436.
Moritz Werner Fenchel ( 1905 – 1988) was a mathematician known for his contributions to geometry and to optimization theory. Fenchel established the basic results of convex analysis and nonlinear optimization theory which would, in time, serve as the foundation for nonlinear programming. A German-born Jew and early refugee from Nazi suppression of intellectuals, Fenchel lived most of his life in Denmark. Fenchel's monographs and lecture notes are considered influential. His papers are held at the institute for mathematical sciences, university of Copenhagen
23. Juli: A. Hammerstein: Über Entwicklungen nach orthogonalen Funktionen eines unendlichen Intervalls. Pp. 450 – 457.
23. Juli: Arthur Korn: Über Reihen - entwicklungen nach Besselschen Funktionen.
Pp. 437 – 449.
Arthur Korn (1870, -, 1945) German physicist, mathematician and inventor.
He was involved in the development of the fax machine, specifically the transmission of photographs or telephotography, known as the Bildetelegraph, related to early attempts at developing a practical mechanical television system..
Korn, being of Jewish descent, was dismissed from his post in 1935 with the rise of the Nazi Party. In 1939 he left Germany for the U.S.A. There, he took the chair in physics and mathematics at Stevens Institute of Technology in Hoboken, New Jersey
23. Juli: R.Fick: Über die Bewegungen und die Muskelarbeit an den Sprunggelenken des Menschen. Pp 458 - 494, 12 illustrations/photographs.
30. Juli: A. Johnsen: ?Über den Glanz der durchsichtigen Mineralien auf ebenen Flächen. Pp. 497 – 505.
30. Juli: Paul Koebe: RIEMANNsche Mannigfaltigkeiten und nichteuklidische Raumformen. Siebente Mitteilung:Singularitätenbehaftete Absolutmessung RIEMANNsche Mannigfaltigkeiten. Kontinuitäts-methode. Pp. 506 – 534.
22. Oktober: K.A. Hoffmann: Bindung von Jod an Molekülaggregate.pp. 536 - 540
22. Oktober: A. Einstein und W. Mayer: Einheitliche Theorie von Gravitation und Elektrizität.pp 541 - 557
29. Oktober: Jos. E. Hofmann: & H. Wieleitner. Die Differentialrechnung bei Leibniz. Mit Zusätzen von D. Mahnke. Pp. 562 - 600
5. November: Walther Mayer: Beitrag zur Differentialgeometrie l-dimensionaler Mannigfaltigkeiten, die in euklidischen Räumen eingebettet sind. Pp. 606 – 615
19. November: Paul Guthnick: Strömungen in Sternatmosphären. Zweite Mitteilung: € Ursae majoris, ein zweiter Fall (x Canum venaticorum. Pp. 618 – 669, several plates
19. November Guido Hoheisel: Kurvenfelder bei Differentilagleichungen erster Ordnung. Pp. 663 – 669.
26. November: W.Cauer: Ein Reaktanztheorem. Pp. 673 – 681.
SOME PRICES ASKED FOR BY COLLEAGUES and THOSE OF REPRINTS/E-BOOKS BY the publisher DE GRUYTER :
Einstein: Quantentheorie des einatomigen idealen gases,’ pp. 261-267 in Sitzungsberichte der Koniglich Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften 1924 [BOSE-EINSTEIN STATISTICS] Published by Berlin: Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1924 offered by Landmarks of Science Books/UK at £ 750 in Sept. 2016
Many of the contributions are available as reprints from the publisher De Gruyter in Berlin at the unit price of EURO 94,95 each or thereabout, we list some examples.
13. Dezember 1923: Albert Einstein: Bietet die Feldtheorie Moeglichkeiten fuer die Loesung des Quantenproblems. Pp. 359 – 364.
Offprint in orange wrappers offered between £ 125 and £435 (Jeremy Norman)
Einstein, Albert. Zur Theorie der Lichtfortpflanzung in dispergierenden Medien . Berlin, Verlag der Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1922. 8°. [Sitzungsberichte der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Sitzung der physikalisch-mathematischen Klasse vom 2.Februar 1922. - III] 8°. Originale Broschur. Original Brochure in Fine condition. £387.00
14. Juni: A. Einstein: Neue Möglichkeit für Eine Einheitliche Feldtheorie von Gravitation und Elektrizität.
Pp 22 4 – 227.
Copies offered at £86 , $450 and $ 540
21. März 1929 : Albert Einstein: Einheitliche Feldtheorie und HAMILTONsches Prinzip.
Offprint with new title page offered on www.einsteinsworld.com for $ 525 April 2014. Lameduck Books offer this at $450; Bonhams sold this for £ 168 in April 2011.
the following offprint is offered at £ 350 (September 2010) see 15th February.
Albert Einstein: Zur allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie
Berlin, Gruyter & Co., 1923. 4to. Orig. orange printed wrappers. Offprint/Sonderabdruck aus Sitzungsberichten.pp. 32-38. First edition in the rare Offprint, stilled called "Abdruck". Weil No. 131.The early Offprints from "Sitzungsberichten." are called "Sonderabdruck" up to Weil No.165 (including this). From Weil 166 they are called "Sonderausgabe.". - Before 161 (up to 160) the Offprints do not have separate title and pagination (the pagination follows the numbering in the periodical). From 166 the Offprint has both separate printed title and pagination. - ( So Weil Nos 161-165 is still "Abdruck", but with separate title and pagination). These facts are not mentioned in the bibliographies.
17. Februar: Albert Einstein: Zu Kaluzas Theorie des Zusammenhanges von Gravitation und Elektrizität. Erste Mitteilungpp. 23 - 25
17. Februar: Albert Einstein: Zu Kaluzas Theorie des Zusammenhanges von Gravitation und Elektrizität. Zweite Mitteilung. Pp. 26 – 30
B.M. Israel wants £ 385 for these 2
15. Dezember: Otto Hahn: Das Protactinium als radioaktives und als chemisches Element. Pp. 275 – 288 we found one copy of the offprint for sale at £ 162 ]
31. Mai: A. Einstein: Zur affinen Feldtheorie. Pp. 137-140 Copies for sale: EURO 680,00 (January 2011) Jeremy Norman asks for $750
[COLLECTION OF 10 OFFPRINTS FROM THE "Sitzungsberichten der preußischen Akademie der Wissenschaften"].
Berlin, Verlag der Akademie der Wissenschaften / de Gruyter, 1922-1932.
I: Zur Theorie der Lichtfortpflanzung in dispergierenden Medien. 1922. [Weil 120. Seelig 162. Schilpp-Shields 145. Boni 132]. II: Zu Kaluzas Theorie des Zusammenhanges von Gravitation und Elektrizität. Erste [und zweite] Mitteilung. 1927. [Weil 156. Seelig 212]. III: Riemann-Geometrie mit Aufrechterhaltung des Begriffes des Fernparallelismus. 1928. [Weil 161. Seelig 161. Boni 174]. IV: Neue Möglichkeit für eine einheitliche Feldtheorie von Gravitation und Elektrizität. 1928. [Weil 162. Seelig 218. Vgl. PMM 416]. V: Einheitliche Feldtheorie und Hamiltonsches Prinzip. 1929. [Weil 166. Seelig 227. Schilpp-Shields 227. Boni 184. Vgl. PMM 416]. VI: Die Kompatibilität der Feldgleichungen in der einheitlichen Feldtheorie. 1930. [Weil 169. Seelig 239]. VII: Zum kosmologischen Problem der allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie. 1931. [Weil 179. Seelig 249, Schilpp-Shields 249]. VIII: Systematische Untersuchung über kompatible Feldgleichungen, welche in einem Riemannschen Raume mit Fernparallelismus gesetzt werden können. 1931. [Weil 180. Seelig 250. Schilpp-Shields 250]. IX: Einstein & W. Mayer: Einheitliche Theorie von Gravitation und Elektrizität. 1931. [Weil 182. Seelig 251. Hook/Norman 701]. X: Einstein & W. Mayer: Einheitliche Theorie von Gravitation und Elektrizität. Zweite Abhandlung. 1932. [Weil 185].
10 der insgesamt 36 unter Einsteins Namen erschienenen "Sonderausgaben aus den Sitzungsberichten", welche zwischen 1914 und 1932 herauskamen. Es handelt sich um Separatabdrucke aus den Sitzungsberichten der Akademie der Wissenschaften, größtenteils in selbständiger Paginierung, von denen einige wenige dem Autor vom Verlag als Beleg- und Widmungsexemplare zur Verfügung gestellt wurden. Einstein war 1914 nach Deutschland zurückgekehrt, ohne wieder um die deutsche Staatsbürgerschaft anzusuchen. Dennoch verlieh man ihm eine Forschungsstelle an der preußischen Akademie der Wissenschaften (mitsamt Professur ohne Lehrverpflichtung an der Universität Berlin), welche er bis Ende 1932 innehatte, als er nach Amerika reiste, um eine Professur in Princeton anzutreten. Der ursprüngliche Plan, sieben Monate im Jahr in Berlin und fünf in Princeton zu verbringen, wurde von der Machtergreifung der Nationalsozialisten schon im darauffolgenden Monat zunichte gemacht, und Einstein sollte nie wieder nach Deutschland zurückkehren. - Die vorliegenden Exemplare stammen aus Einsteins mittlerer und später Zeit an der Akademie. Sie behandeln insbesondere den Zusammenhang zwischen Gravitation und Elektrizität bzw. Elektromagnetismus. Zwar hatte Maxwell bereits Licht und Elektrizität zueinander in Beziehung gesetzt, doch die Schwerkraft ließ sich noch in keine allgemeine Kraftrelation einbauen. Einstein bemühte sich um eine einheitliche Feldtheorie, da die allgemeine Relativitätstheorie das elektromagnetische Feld nicht angemessen mit der Geometrie der Raumzeit vereinen ließ. Nach einem ersten Lösungversuch 1925 widmete sich Einstein ab 1928 wiederum dem Problem, "only to find that Riemann's conception of space, on which the general theory was based, would not permit of a common explanation of electromagnetic and gravitational phenomena. In a series of papers devoted to the development of 'A Uniform Theory of Gravitation and Electricity' he outlined a new theory of space with a view to the unification of all forms of activity that fall within the sphere of physics, giving them a common explanation. All that would then remain to complete a scientific unison is the correlation of the organic and inorganic" (PMM 416). - Die vorliegenden Sonderdrucke reichen vom ersten nach dem Nobelpreis bis zum vorletzten vor dem Verlassen Deutschlands. Drei Nummern erschienen in Zusammenarbeit mit Einsteins Assistenten, Dr. Walter Mayer. - Einer der Drucke mit leichter Knickspur am Vorderdeckel, sonst durchwegs tadellos.
Price: EUR 2,800.00
EINSTEIN, ALBERT and SCHRÖDINGER, ERWIN.
Zum kosmologischen Problem der allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie. With bound in : Schrödinger: Spezielle Relativitätstheorie und Quantenmechanik.
Lynge/Copenhagen. Offers these 2 in November 2016: £ 221.00
7. Juni: A. Einstein: Riemann-Geometrie eometrie mit Aufrechterhaltung des Begriffes des Fernparallelis-mus.
Copies available between £ 45 and £ 385
24. Mai: H. Ludendorff: Über die Abhängigkeit der Form der Sonnenkorona von der Sonnenflecken-häufigkeit.
E-book available at EURO 140,-
Sitzungsberichte d. Preuss. Akademie d. Wissenschaften zu Berlin. Jg. 1928 Phys.-math. Klasse. (St. 1-33). M. 6 Taf. u. einigen Abb. S. LXVII-CXXXIX u. 553 S. Hldr. m. Goldpräg. a. 4 Bünden. Kanten sehr gering beschabt. u. Vorwort in Heften. St. a. Tit. Poggendorff VI/648 (Einstein). - Enth. u.a.: Reinhardt, K., Über d. Zerlegung d. euklidischen Ebene in kongruente Bereiche; Fick, Bewegungsumfang im Schultergelenk; Schur, Über d. stetigen Darstellungen d. allgemeinen linearen Gruppe; Rubner, Die Welternährung in Vergangenheit, Gegenwart u. Zukunft; Einstein, A., Riemann-Geometrie mit Aufrechterhaltung d. Begriffes d. Fernparallelismus; Ders., Neue Möglichkeit für eine einheitliche Feldtheorie von Gravitation u. Elektrizität; Haberlandt, Zur Entwicklungsphysiologie d. Periderms.
Koebe, Paul. Riemannsche Mannigfaltigkeiten Und Nichteuklidische Raumformen. Dritte Mitteilung. Elementarsynthese Aller Hyperbolischen Raumformen. . . . Sonderabdruck Aus Den Sitzungsberichten Der Preussischen Akademie Der Wissenschaften.
DRITTE MITTEILUNG OFFERED AT £ 40.00 BY Pride and Prejudice-Books.New York
Fick, R. Beobachtungen am Orangkehlsack; Sonderabdruck aus: "Sitzungsberichte der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften", phys.-math. Klasse, 1928, 23. 5 pages. AVAILABE NEW
Verlag : De Gruyter’c current price for reprint: ISBN : 978-3-11-127738-7 gebunden. : 94,95 Eur[D]
Also: R.Fick: Über d. Arbeitsleistung d. Schultergelenkmuskeln. De Gruyter, 99,95 €
G. Haberlandt: Die Lage des Zellkerns in der Eizelle der Angiospermen und ihre physiolo-gische Bedeutung. De Gruyter’s current price for reprint EURO 94,95
L. Bieberbach und I. Schur: Über die MINKOWSKische Reduktionstheorie der positiven quadratischen formen.. De Gruter’s current price for reprint EURO 94,95
Einstein: Zur einheitlichen Feldtheorie. Offprint for sale in April 2014 by Einsteinsworld/USA at $ 1100.-
6 other copies on line between £ 280 and £ 655
F. Haber: Über die Rolle der Elektrizitätsträger bei der Explosion brennbarer Gase im Gemische mit Luft.
De Gruyter reprint: EURO 94,95
H. Ludendorff: Über den sogenannten 61 Cygni-Sternstrom. De Gruyter reprint: EURO 94,95
Hahn, O., Die radioaktiven Substanzen im Dienste chemischer u. physikalisch-chemischer Forschung
Jeff Weber Rare Books, ABAA £ 183 May 2014 on ABE
9 Januar: Albert Einstein: Die Kompatabilität der Feldgleichungen in der einheitlichen Feldtheorie.
Offprint a year later in 1930 priced $ 450.00 (lame Duck Books/USA)
Lynge & Søn A/S, København K (DK) offers this at £ 182.00, 5 others offer this at £ 72 onwards
M[ax]. von Laue: zur Elektrostatik der Raumgitter March 2016 available as offprint (1930) 90 EURO
H. Ludendorff: Über die Entstehung der Tzolkin-Periode im Kalender der Maya. March 2016 one offprint on amazon £ 45.00
Albert Einstein und W. Mayer: Zwei Strenge Statische Losungen der Feldgleichungen der Einheitlichen Feldtheorie. 2nd impression in orange wrappers offered for sale in March 2016 at $ 300 by Einstein’s world/USA. Elsewhere 110 EURO.
5. Juni: Max Rubner: Konstitution und Ernährung. Availale new from De Gruyter 109,95 EURO
H. Ludendorff: Über die Reduktion der Maya-Datierungen auf unsere Zeitrechnung. One 2nd hand copy of the offprint 1930 40 EURO
PLANCK, Max. Über die Grenzschicht verdünnter Elektrolyte. (1.)-2. Mitteilung in 2 Heften. Berlin: De Gruyter, 1930. Offprint 300 EURO offered by Milestones of Science books/Germany ( September 2016)